### Benefits Realization and Business Cases: Pros and Cons of NPV, IRR and Payback calculations

Here are the specific advantages and disadvantages of the net present value method, and why it may not be the best way to compare projects or investments. While useful NPV and IRR methods are useful methods for determining whether to accept a project, both have their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages. Keywords: Net Present Value(NPV), Internal Rate of Return(IRR), Benefit cost ratio and each approach has its own distinct advantages and disadvantages. Net Present Value refers to the difference between the present value of all cash.

The time value of money considers the money on the basis of the time which makes it dependable. This feature is not available in many of the other projects which is a drawback. The best thing about IRR is that it is easy to interpret.

### NPV vs IRR - Which is Better? - WallStreetMojo

It is easy to use and the results of IRR can be easily studied and taken into consideration unlike other results in other methods. These results are highly reliable. Due to its easy accessibility the managers use this method unless any other peculiar situation arises in which other methods are suitable to be applied.

Hurdle Rate is the Required Rate of Return. It is a difficult task to ascertain a hurdle rate that is reliable enough to draw the results.

But the IRR method does not consider the Required Rate of Return while examining the results which gives this method a cover of any risk of wrong interpretations. The required rate of return is a rough estimate and is not completely used by the IRR method. The managers can safely take the decision without any risk because the IRR is no where linked with the required rate of return. Ignores Economies of Scale: The IRR method ignores the economies of scale completely.

It ranks the projects on the basis of the returns they will produce.

## NPV vs IRR

For example there are two projects: Mutually Exclusive Projects means that if one project is accepted the other cannot be accepted. Thus it is a difficult task to ascertain which project gives a better return not just on the percentage basis but also the quantitative basis. The calculation of an IRR is little tricky. It is advantageous in terms of its simplicity and it has certain disadvantages in the form of limitations under certain special conditions.

IRR is nothing but shows high interest rate which we expect from our investment. So, we can say, IRR is the perfect use of time value of money theory. All Cash Flows Are Equally Important It is good method of capital budgeting in which we give equal importance to all the cash flows not earlier or later.

We just create its relation with different rate and want to know where is present value of cash inflow is equal to present value of cash outflow. Uniform Ranking There is no base for selecting any particular rate in internal rate of return.

Unrealistic Assumption for calculating IRR we create one assumption. We think that if we invest out money on this IRR, after receiving profit, we can easily reinvest our investments profit on same IRR. It is an unrealistic assumption. Hurdle Rate Not Required In capital budgeting analysis, the hurdle rate, or cost of capital, is the required rate of return at which investors agree to fund a project. It can be a subjective figure and typically ends up as a rough estimate.

Capital investment decisions, which involve commitments for large outlays whose benefits or drawbacks extend well into the future, are of great significance to a firm. Decisions in these areas will therefore have major impact on the future well-being of the firm1.

In capital budgeting, there are a number of different approaches that can be used to evaluate any given project, and each approach has its own distinct advantages and disadvantages.

Investment criteria fall into two categories: IRR's major limitation is also its greatest strength: Objectives of the study: The purpose of this study is to develop a technique enabling objective decisions under the conflict of results obtained through employment of the NPV and of IRR methods. He find that The use of both capital budgeting decision techniques may lead to conflicting answers when a time disparity and mutually exclusive conflict occurs.

To reinvest at required rate of return is more realistic and provide reliable results when comparing mutually exclusive projects. For independent project NPV and IRR reaches the same result, if projects are mutually exclusive and different in size than NPV is best because it selects the project that maximizes the value.

At conclusion it was said that NPV is better than IRR for competitive projects Brigham, Daves5 In a study of the capital budgeting practices of fourteen medium to large size companies in India, it was found that all companiesexcept one, used payback. IRR was found to be the second most popular method6. Two criteria for choosing between capital investment projects are net present value NPV and internal rate of return IRR.

Sometimes they provide inconsistent rankings. This inconsistency sparked a debate about which criterion is better. The debate has lasted more than years. Osborne8 describes a new approach to the debate. The time value of money equation is a polynomial, and a polynomial of order n does not have a single root.

It has n roots. The result of taking into account the n solutions for IRR is a new equation for NPV that suggests a resolution to the debate. The capital budgeting process includes: Radtke9 It is well known that internal rate of return IRR and net present value NPV rankings of mutually exclusive investments are sometimes inconsistent.

This inconsistency, when it occurs, requires decision makers to choose between the two ranking methods.

The purpose of this paper is to deduce sufficient conditions for consistent IRR and NPV investment rankings of mutually exclusive investments. Robison 10 in their paper suggests the appropriate criteria for selecting a particular method for ranking mutually exclusive investments. Net Present Value method is one of the discounted cash flow techniques, which takes into account the time value of money.

Net Present Value refers to the difference between the present value of all cash inflows and present value of all cash out flows associated with the project The formula for the net present value can be written as follows: The advantages are i it Considers all cash flows, ii it is a True measure of profitability, iii it is based on the concept of the time value of money, iv It Satisfies the value additive principle.

The disadvantages are i it requires estimates of cash flows which is a tedious task, ii it Requires computation of opportunity cost of capital which poses practical difficulties and iii it is sensitive to discount rates value of money.

Internal Rate of Return is that rate at which the sum of discounted cash inflows equals the sum of discounted cash out flows.

It is rate of return which equates the present value of cash inflows to present value of cash out flows. Here in this method discount rate may not known but cash inflows and out flows are known. That rate has to find that is IRR. The formula for the Internal Rate of Return can be written as follows: The advantages of IRR is i it considers all cash flows, ii it is aTrue measure of profitabilityiii Based on the concept of time value of money, and iv Generally, consist with wealth maximization principle.

The disadvantages are i Requires estimates of cash flows which is a tedious task, ii Does not hold the value additive principle. The methods of net present value NPV and of internal rate of return IRR are among the ones most frequently employed in the evaluation of investment projects based on discounted cash flow.

The methods have a universal character, strong methodological basis and broad application in the areas of investment project evaluation. Somewhere, the degree of reliability of the methods is equal; therefore, sometimes only one of them is used, with the decision adopted on the basis of a single indicator. Reflects the return on capital investments High dependence of the indicator on the discount in the best and clearest way.

With a high discount rate, future cash flows have little influence on the NPV. In addition, one cannot always determine the discount rate ob- jectively.