EMPEROR ASHOKA OF INDIA Some Information Revealed « Karthik Navayan
 This marriage also ended the hostility between Magadha and Kosala and gave him According to the tradition, Bimbisara was imprisoned by his son Ajatashatru to ..  It contains one of the best-preserved of the Pillars of Ashoka, topped by a .. which elected a ceremonial king to act upon the committee's advice. Ajatshatru was born in BC that is approx years before Maurya dynasty and belonged to Haryanka dynasty of Magadha. He was son of King Bimbisar perhaps this causes confusion as King Bindusar of Maurya dynasty was father of Ashoka. He took over his kingdom from his father. and Ajatashatru ruled. This dynasty was . Ashoka, complement the Arthashāstra and hence we find a co-relation between. Mauryan real politic and . whereas the mantrins were charged with the duty of advising the king. 3. Janapada: The.
Provinces were ruled by governors and viceroys and the Emperor himself with the help of his council. An intelligence system, which included courtesans, reported to the king. Irrigation was regulated, and the army had more thanmen; but they were outnumbered by the farmers, whose work was respected even in wartime.
Literary legends portray Chanakya as the genius behind the throne and the author of Kautilya's Arthashastra. Jain tradition claims that in the last days of his life Chandragupta was converted and joined their migration led by Bhadrabahu. Chandgragupta ruled for a quarter of a century and was succeeded by his son Bindusara, who ruled for about 27 years. According to a Tibetan source, Chanakya also helped Bindusara destroy sixteen towns and master all the territory between the eastern and western seas.
Bindusara corresponded with the Syrian king Antiochus I, offering to buy wine, figs, and a sophist; but Greek law prohibited the selling of a sophist. Buddhist texts portray Ashoka consolidating his empire by killing ninety-nine of his brothers; but some consider this an exaggeration to set off the contrast after his conversion because some of his rock edicts indicate loving care of his brothers.
With a sense of his historic mission Ashoka had these rock edicts and stone pillars carved all over India with descriptions of his intentions and actions. These tell a remarkable story of the philosopher king H. Wells called the greatest of kings.
Ashoka admitted in Rock Edict 13 that eight years after his consecration as king when "Kalinga was conquered,people were deported,were killed, and many times that number died.
Ajatashatru - Wikipedia
With great remorse Ashoka transformed himself and attempted to transform his kingdom and the world, though he warned offenders that they might be executed if they disobey. Eliminating capital punishment was not one of his reforms, although he did often delay executions. Ashoka expressed his main concern for the next world. Ashoka renounced the violence of war, stating that he would have to bear all that could be borne.
He refused to conquer weaker and smaller states, allowing even forest tribes an equal sovereignty. He wanted all people to enjoy the benefits of non-injury, self-control, fair conduct, and gentleness.
As a benevolent monarch he declared all people his children and expressed his desire that all his children obtain welfare and happiness both in this world and the next. He thus engaged in preaching but also worked hard to serve his people. Instead of organizing military expeditions, he sent out peace missions throughout his kingdom and beyond to teach virtue and conversion to a moral life by love.
In another rock edict Ashoka said he had been an open follower of the Buddha for two and a half years. He abolished royal hunting and animal sacrifices in the capital, reducing the palace's killing of animals for food from several thousand a day to two peacocks and an occasional deer, and he promised to eliminate even those three. He banned sports involving the killing of animals and cruel animal fighting. In the 26th year of his reign he restricted the killing and injury of parrots, wild geese, bats, ants, tortoises, squirrels, porcupines, lizards, rhinos, pigeons, and all quadrupeds that were neither used nor eaten.
Ashoka provided medicinal plants for people and animals to neighboring kings as well as throughout his own kingdom, seeing no more important work than acting for the welfare of the whole world. He appointed governors who would serve the happiness and welfare of the people, and he insisted on justice and consistent punishments. He commanded that reports be made to him at any hour of the day and at any place, so intent was he in working for the good of all.
To protect people and beasts Ashoka had trees planted and shelters built at regular intervals along the roads. Mango groves were planted, and wells were dug. Although he followed Buddhist dharma, Ashoka respected all the religious sects and also encouraged his people to do so by guarding their speech in neither praising one's own sect nor blaming other sects except in moderation.
He believed that whoever praises one's own sect and disparages another's does one's own sect the greatest possible harm. Ashoka's emphasis was on ethical action rather than ritual and ceremonies, which he found of little use. The ceremonies of dharma that he found useful were "the good treatment of slaves and servants, respect for elders, self-mastery in one's relations with living beings, gifts to Brahmins and ascetics, and so on.
Yet his efforts were to bring justice and virtue to the whole world. Thanks to his rock edicts and human memory, his admirable intentions will never be forgotten. Little is known of Ashoka's successors, but it took about fifty years before the Mauryan dynasty came to an end about BC with the assassination of Brihadratha by his general Pushyamitra and the invasion of the Bactrian Greeks.
Pushyamitra was able to drive out the Greeks and ruled for about 36 years, but Buddhists complained that he was a cruel persecutor of their religion who offered gold coins for the killing of monks. The Shunga kings ruled for more than a century and were followed by the Kanvas, whose dynasty in Magadha lasted 45 years and was overthrown in 30 BC. By this point the empire was broken up, and little is known of this history except of some of the Greek rulers in Bactria, such as Demetrius II who conquered the Punjab and northwest India between and BC, Eucratides who was murdered by his son about BC, and Menander who ruled for about 25 years in the late second century BC and was said to have become a follower of the Buddha.
Ashoka recognized three neighboring kingdoms in southern India as Chola, Pandya, and Chera, where the Tamil language was spoken. Legends indicate Dravidian and Aryan tribes coming in from the northwest; Agastya was said to have brought farmers from the homeland of Krishna. The Chola ascendancy over the Tamil states began in the first century BC when King Karikala escaped from prison and eventually defeated the combined forces of the Pandya and Chola kings with the help of eleven minor chieftains.
King Karikala also invaded the island of Sri Lanka and removed 12, inhabitants to work building a fortification at the seaport Puhar. He also had irrigation channels built there at the River Kaveri. The pre-Dravidian aborigines were called Nagas and Yakshas. About the fourth century BC they were colonized by people from Bengal led by Vijaya, who had been banished by his father for evil conduct; he invaded the island with seven hundred men followed by the importation of a thousand families and many maidens.
A century later King Devanampiya Tissa sent an embassy to Emperor Ashoka, who sent back envoys to consecrate this king. Ashoka's brother Mahendra went to Sri Lanka to convert them to Buddhism, and a branch of the Bodhi tree was planted in the capital Anuradhapura. Devanampiya Tissa ruled Sri Lanka for forty years until about BC, and he was succeeded by his three brothers. Then two brothers from southern India named Sena and Guttika usurped the throne and ruled for twenty years.
The noble Elara from Chola overcame Asela and ruled the island for many years with justice for friends and enemies.
Political and Social Ethics of India by Sanderson Beck
Legend records that he even had his own son executed for accidentally running over a calf and killing it. Elara introduced their tradition of the bell of justice. However, he was considered a Tamil usurper, and after fifteen years of war he was defeated and killed by King Dutthagamani r.
He was succeeded by his brother Saddhatissa r. Upon his death his younger son Thulatthana was chosen king by counselors and Buddhist monks, but the elder son Lanjatissa defeated the younger brother and held the throne for ten years. He was succeeded by his younger brother Khallatanaga, who was killed by rebels after ruling for six years. The rebel king was soon killed by another brother Vattagamani, who married the widowed queen in BC.
However, the same year King Vattagamani faced a Tamil invasion and a rebellion by one of his governors. He tried to quell the rebellion by using the invaders, but then the seven invaders drove him out of the country.
His queen and the Buddha's alms-bowl were taken back to India by two invaders while the other five invaders ruled Sri Lanka BC.
Vattagamani recovered his kingdom from the Tamil invasion in 89 BC and governed for twelve years during which the extensive Buddhist Tripitaka was written down along with the Atthakatha. Vattagamani was succeeded by two sons, but the second, Choranaga r. He and several succeeding kings were poisoned by his wife Anula; then she was killed by Kutkannatissa, who ruled for 22 years until about 20 BC.
Dharma Sutras In ancient Indian culture political and social ethics were focused around the three goals of dharma justice, duty, virtueartha success, prosperityand kama pleasure.Magdha -- Magadha Empire -- Ancient History of India -- History
The fourth goal of moksha liberation was considered the highest goal sought through spiritual and religious endeavor. Ways of attaining this spiritual release from the cycle of rebirth have been discussed in the chapters on the Upanishads, Jainism, and Buddhism, and will also be discussed in the next chapter on Hinduism. The era of the sutras in Hindu culture slightly preceded the development of Jainism and Buddhism in the sixth century BC and lasted until the law codes began to become more formalized in the Laws of Manu starting around the 2nd century BC.
Each school of the Brahmins had their own collection of duties with the Shrauta Sutras on the Vedic sacrifices, the Grihya Sutras on domestic ceremonies, and the Dharma Sutras on personal and social conduct.
All of these follow the sacred traditions of the Aryan Vedas and distinguish the various duties, obligations, and privileges of the four castes. The Grihya Sutras delineate detailed rules for the householder in regard to marriage and household customs, manners, and rituals. The Dharma Sutras cover broader areas of social customs and offer specific rules for almost every aspect of life.
The four castes of the Brahmins priestsKshatriyas rulersVaishyas farmers and merchantsand Sudras workers were a strict hierarchy with each preceding caste superior by birth to the one following. The twice-born top three are ordained through initiation to study the Vedas and kindle the sacred fire, but the Sudras were only ordained to serve the other three superior castes.
Brahmins were initiated in the eighth year after conception in the spring, Kshatriyas in the eleventh year in the summer, and Vaishyas in the twelfth in the autumn. The one initiating them became their teacher and must be served loyally according to strict rules. Initiates were not supposed to associate with those families that were not initiated called "slayers of Brahman.
Belief in the caste system was based on the idea of karma that those who act well in this life will be born in better circumstances or a higher caste next time, and those who do not fulfill their duties will be born in a lower caste and worse circumstances. Nevertheless this arbitrary system based on birth does tend to violate the principles of justice and equal opportunity for all.
The student phase of life was quite strict and celibate. These youths were not allowed to look at dancing, attend festivals or gambling halls, gossip, be indiscreet, talk with women unnecessarily, nor find any pleasure where one's teacher could be found.
Students were to restrain their organs, be forgiving, modest, self-possessed, energetic, and free of anger and envy. The teacher was to love the youth as his own son and give him full attention in teaching the sacred knowledge without hiding anything in the law; teachers were not allowed to use students for their own purposes to the detriment of their studies except in times of distress. The syllable Aum was chanted prior to studying the Vedasand twelve years were considered necessary for the study of each of the four Vedasalthough not everyone studied all four, as family traditions tended to focus on one of the Vedas.
Meditation was practiced to gain wisdom and recognize the soul atman in all creatures as well as the eternal being within oneself.
The eradication of faults such as anger, exultation, grumbling, covetousness, perplexity, doing injury, hypocrisy, lying, gluttony, calumny, envy, lust, secret hatred, and neglecting to control the senses or mind was accomplished by means of yoga.
Detailed rules of penance are described for numerous offenses. When adequate knowledge of the Veda has been gained by the student, he goes through a bathing ceremony and is henceforth known as a snataka.
Rules for the snataka are detailed as are the duties of the householder after marriage. Rules of inheritance are defined, and funeral ceremonies are described. Beyond student and householder are two more stages of life available to spiritual seekers, who leave their home to become a chaste hermit in the forest, possibly to be followed by the final stage of renouncing everything as an ascetic sannyasin who must live without a fire, without a house, without pleasures, without protection.
Remaining silent and uttering speech only on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda, begging so much food only in the village as will sustain his life, he shall wander about neither caring for this world nor for heaven. The beginnings of criminal and civil law are also outlined in the Dharma Sutras, but punishments are differentiated according to the perpetrator's caste and also the victim's. Neither capital nor corporal punishment were to be inflicted on Brahmins.
A Brahmin might be exiled, but he was allowed to take his things. The Apastamba Sutra concludes with the idea that duties not taught in the text must be learned from women and men of all castes.
The sage Manu begins by describing the creation from the divine self-existent reality, which can be perceived by the internal organ. The best of the created beings are those animated ones who subsist by their intelligence, and of those humans the best are the Brahmins who learn the Vedas and know God Brahman. Manu declared the sacred law as it pertains to the four castes varna meaning color. Though action from a desire for rewards is not laudable, there is no exception in this world.
The study of the Veda is based on the idea of action karma - that acts, sacrifices, and the keeping of vows and laws are kept on the belief that they will bear fruit. Those who obey the revealed laws and the sacred tradition gain fame in life and after death unsurpassable bliss.
The sacred law comes from four sources: The Vedas represent the revealed truth srutiand on them are based the Sutras and these laws which define the sacred tradition smriti. Thus study of the Vedas is still primary for the three castes who are initiated. The best way to restrain oneself from sensual pleasures is by constant pursuit of knowledge.
The student is to abstain from honey, meat, perfumes, garlands, spices, women, any acid, and from doing injury to living creatures. Students especially must watch out for women, because it is their nature to seduce men, and they can lead astray even a learned man, causing him to become a slave of desire and anger.
Originally the castes and laws may not have been as rigid as they later became. With faith, says the Laws of Manu 2: Many of the rules for students and snatakas follow those in the Dharma Sutras.
There is the deeper belief that injustice practiced in this world may not bear fruit at once; but eventually it will cut off one's roots, and it may even fall on one's sons or grandsons, though one may prosper for a while through injustice.
The following advice is given to the twice-born: Let him always delight in truthfulness, the sacred law, conduct worthy of an Aryan, and purity; let him chastise his pupils according to the sacred law; let him keep his speech, his arms, and his belly under control.
Let him avoid wealth and desires, if they are opposed to the sacred law, and even lawful acts which may cause pain in the future or are offensive to people. Let him not be uselessly active with his hands and feet, or with his eyes, nor crooked nor talk idly, nor injure others by deeds or even think of it. The Brahmin, who accepts gifts without performing austerities or studying the Veda, sinks like a boat made of stone.
Everyone is born single and dies the same way. Single, one enjoys virtue or sin, for in the next world neither father, mother, wife, nor sons stay to be one's companions; only spiritual merit alone remains. The persevering, gentle, and patient shun the company of the cruel, and doing no injury gains heavenly bliss by controlling one's organs and by liberality.
To lie to the virtuous is the most sinful thing as it steals away one's own self. What is most salutary for the soul is to meditate constantly in solitude in order to attain supreme bliss. According to their own stipulations, only the Brahmins — the elite — the ruling class, were entitled to full-fledged education.
This elevated them, so they were able to thrive on the ignorance of others. Sudras were denied the right to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge. And according to the Brahminical culture, writing factual history was totally forbidden. The only disciplines that they encouraged were the unseen spiritual, belief-ridden and speculative literature, full of myth and imaginary tales.
As an example of the parlous state of recording Indian history: On their destruction it is the Mauryas that will rule the earth during the kali age, the very Brahmin will install Chandragupta on the throne. His son indeed will be Warisara and Ashokavardhana will be born to the letter. Other Priests made such brief and misleading and obscure statements on the past revealing nothing useful of actual history.
These obscure statements give us no clues as to the true grandeur of ancient India and its relationships with the outside world. It was a huge puzzle. Who was it who had ordered the erection of all these robust pillars with edicts, rock pillars which have withstood all the destructive events that nature and even human destructive attempts, could throw at them through the centuries? The historians of yore failed to give the name of the India King who has done all this work of recording the tales and happenings of the contemporary India on innumerable polished surface of the hills, caves and rocks.
So it was extremely difficult for historians of the nineteenth century to identify this Piyadassi, the name was unknown to Indian literature and unknown to any reference work or dictionary. But it was available in the Buddhist chronicles in Ceylon. When Indians themselves, had destroyed their own sources of Indian history then the true history of India could only be recovered from whatever sources could be found outside India.
Story of Ajatshatru and Bimbisara
It can be observed that, ironically, it was Ashoka who had created these foreign sources. Only foreigners were willing and able to reveal the true history of India. Foreigners using foreign sources, worked to solve the puzzles of Indian history. It all started when European civilians who came to administer India, of their own volition, took the burden of unearthing the buried truth of Indian history. This was the start of a great adventure to get answers to the mystery!
The scripts were deciphered by English scholars. Scripts with names such as Brahmin and Khrosti, and the languages, Pali and Prakrit were deciphered by English scholars and the chronicles Deepavamsa and Mahavamsa were searched for clues. Not long ago at all, to this writer! The Efforts to Debunk the Maurya Dynasty The Buddhism the Mauryans introduced on a wide scale was egalitarian with policies which had been used previously to rule different small states in Indian history and govern their subjects compassionately.
It is clear now that the Brahmins went on the offensive. They looked for opportunities to weaken and denigrate Buddhism. He was vulnerable to denigration in the Caste system, it is said, due to his low birth. It is said that his mother Mura, was a slave girl to Emperor Dhana Nanda. Her son Chandragupta, was by Dhana Nanda. Mura belonged to the tribe of north Bihar, who traditionally used to rear Mayur or peacocks. The Maurya dynasty were from the Sudra class and were the object of Hindu contempt.
So, despite this glorious derring-do of King Chandragupta, Brahmanic literature of a much later age, denigrates and belittles the glory and meritorious caliber of this low-born man who rose to the rank of emperor. Two Sanskrit books, Artha Shastra and Mudra Rakshasa, are the only sources available for a description of the personal life of King Chandragupta, and which also could give a useful insight to contemporary socio-economic and politico-religious life of India.
In the drama, Mudra Rakshasa, written by Vishakhdutta in the 5th century, Chadragupa is repeatedly addressed by his Chief Minister Chanakya, as Vrisal even in the presence of the ordinary subjects. Vrisal means Sudra, the lowest of the castes in Varnashram.
Sudras are regarded worthlessly low, devoid of any praiseworthy human qualities. These Sanskrit works claiming to be historical literature, written around eight hundred years after Chandragupta, are clearly intended to satisfy and uphold Brahminic pride and power. The descriptions as given in these books do not provide us with reliable information about anything, especially a character description of Chandragupta.
And the stories provoke such questions as why should such a feeble Vrisal be tolerated at all, by the worthy Chief Minister Chanakya when this tolerance was in total contravention to the Hindu scriptural dictum? How was it that to punish and top and tail the Sudra Nanda dynasty, as the story claims, the Brahmin of high caliber took up the very low born Sudra Chandragupta?
Was there no Kshatriya or Brahmin or Vaishya of merit available to be groomed by the worthy minister Chanakya!! Besides, in fact, we know that Chandragupta was not a Hindu, he was a Jain by religious faith. As the story is told, he would have made a great contribution himself, to Chandragupta becoming emperor. How come the Sudra Chandragupta with his Jain culture was not repudiated and sent out by the Brahmins of those days?
Despite all of these contradictions to realistic narrative history given in these stories, hard evidence shows that this supposed Sudra dynasty continued with, and accelerated their efforts against the caste-ridden religion Hinduism with all its inhumanities, and propagated humanistic Buddhism.
These two books reveal a concerted attempt to detract from, and even expunge from history this glorious Buddhist-Jain epoch. It was an attempt to distort, at a minimum, or totally destroy this history and its source materials — an organized attempt to Aryanize or hijack these chapters of Indian history. It is very difficult to know how many inscriptions Ashoka got engraved on stone pillars and rocks because no subsequent rulers, whether Buddhist or Brahminical or Hindu took any step to locate, record and preserve them.
They form an invaluable body of ancient Indian history — a wealth of information on the past. But perversely, the natural process of erosion over time has been greatly assisted by human activity — seemingly Brahminical hostility and determination to wipe out all evidence of this epoch of Buddhist philosophy and practice.
Only a few of these edicts survive and only that when hidden under the cover of deep jungles and heaps of mud in some deserted and remote places. It is interesting to mention here that the Ashoka pillar found at the Sanchi Stupa Vidisa was found in a mutilated form.
It has been preserved by the authorities of the Archaeology Department and is now kept on the ground in a flat position. The pieces of the pillar remaining have been well preserved by modern archaeologists. These remnants show many definite and deep marks of damage.
That tells us of the many attempts that were made to break it into pieces: The department of Archaeology has very kindly displayed a notice board nearby, to inform visitors that some Hindu fanatic Zamindars tried to destroy the pillar.
There is a Lingaraj temple some sixty miles away from Vidisa and near to Bhopal city. The Shiva Linga in the temple is around eighteen feet high and twenty feet in diameter. A close and careful observation reveals that the Shivalinga has been cut and shaped from a massive Ashokan pillar — and it is the same sand stone. The entire temple other than the Linga, including the base on which the Linga has been placed was made out of distinctly different stone of slate colour.
The school of architecture appears to be different. There are many other instances of destruction or the appropriation of Buddhist relics and architectural remains by Hindus — called the process of Hinduisation.
It is known that many Hindu Temples in India have been built on or converted from the remains of Buddhist stupas, viharas, etc. Conclusion You can say that Muslims were motivated primarily, for loot and for women. The Buddhist temples and universities were un-defended prizes to be won at little or no cost to themselves. Muslims in India and Afghanistan plundered Buddhist sites for relics of any worth and smashing up what remained.
This was and still is their great interest, and where possible they are joined by the Brahmans in that vast undefended continent. But the Brahmans — called Hindus after the arrival of Islam in India, apart from plunder — also had an agenda of cultural annihilation for Buddhism. A thousand years of human-friendly Buddhism was neglected in their history books! END In writing this history, recourse has been made to several sources, here listed in importance as follows: Biswas, in four parts.
It was re-typed from the original by Chakradhar Hadke, but this writer found it incoherent. Ajatashatru at last agreed and sent a request to both his brothers to give the elephant and the necklace to him, which both his brothers denied saying that these gifts were given by their dear father so why should they part from them? Ajatashatru sent the request thrice but got the same reply all three times.
This annoyed him a lot, so he sent his men to arrest them. Ajatashatru sent notice thrice to Chetaka to surrender them but was denied by Chetaka. This was enough for Ajatashatru. Each Kalakumara brought horses, elephants, chariots and infantrymen each. On the other hand, Chetaka invited his own allies 9 Mallas, 9 Lichhvis and 18 kings of Kasi-Kosala to fight his grandson Ajatashatru.
All these kings came with horses, elephants, chariots and infantrymen each. Thus all together there were elephants, chariots, horses, and infantrymen. King Chetaka was a devout follower of Lord Mahavira and had a vow to not shoot more than one arrow per day in a war. It was known to all that Chetaka's aim was perfect and his arrows were infallible.
His first arrow killed one Kalakumara, commander of Ajatashatru. On the consecutive nine days the rest of the nine Kalakumaras were killed by Chetaka. Deeply sorrowed by the death of their sons, the Kali queens were initiated as nuns in the holy order of Lord Mahavira.
- Devi (wife of Ashoka)
- EMPEROR ASHOKA OF INDIA Some Information Revealed
As Ajatashatru was moving towards defeat he practised penance for three days and offered prayers to Sakrendra and Charmendra Indra of different heavens who then helped him in the war. They protected him from the infallible arrow of Chetaka. The war became very severe and by the divine influence of the Indras even the pebbles, straws, leaves hurled by Ajatashatru's men fell like rocks on the army of Chetaka.
This war was thus named "Mahasilakantaka", i. Next the Indras granted a huge, divine chariot with swinging maces or blades on each side, and driven by Charmendra himself, to Ajatashatru. The chariot moved freely in the battlefield chrushing lakhs of soldiers. This battle was named Ratha-musala. In this battle Chetaka was defeated. But Chetaka and others immediately took shelter inside the city walls of Vaishali and closed the main gate. The walls around Vaishali were so strong that Ajatashatru was unable to break through them.
Many days passed, Ajatashatru became furious and again prayed to Indra, but this time Indra refused to help him. But Ajatashatru was informed by an oracle of a demi-goddess "Vaishali can be conquered if Sramana monk Kulvalaka gets married to a prostitute. The fallen women attracted the monk towards herself and finally the monk gave up his monkhood and married her. Later Magadhika on Ajatashatru's orders brainwashed Kulvalaka to enter Vaishali disguised as an astrologer.
With great difficulty, he did enter Vaishali and learned that the city was saved by a Chaitya altar dedicated to Munisuvrata. Kulvalaka then started telling people that this altar is the reason why the city is suffering through a bad period.
The people uprooted the altar from its very foundation. Kulvalaka gave a signal and Ajatashatru proceeded as per prior arrangement. This was the last attack. Vaishali was conquered by Ajatashatru. Sechanaka the elephant died after it fell in a pit with iron rods and fire made by Ajatashatru's soldiers. Later Halla and Vihalla kumaras got initiated as monks in the holy order of Lord Mahavira. Chetaka courted Sallekahna fasted unto death. Ajatashatru not only conquered Vaishali but also Kasi-Kosala.
Manudev was a famous king of the illustrious Lichchavi clan of the confederacy, who desired to possess Amrapali after he saw her dance performance in Vaishali.
The Buddhist tradition[ edit ] There was a diamond mine near a village on the river Ganges. Because of sheer lethargy, Ajatashatru failed to collect his own share, and the whole lot of diamonds was carried away by the Lichhavis. This happened many times, and at last Ajatashatru got annoyed and thought, "it is almost impossible to fight against the whole confederacy of Vaishali.
I must uproot these powerful Vajjis and exterminate them". He sent his chief minister Vassakara to Lord Buddha to ask him the purpose of Vaishali being invincible, to which Lord Buddha gave seven reasons which included Vajjis being punctual to the meetings, their disciplined behavior, their respect for elders, respect for women, they do not marry their daughters forcefully, they give spiritual protection to the Arhatsand the main reason was the Chaityas altar inside the town.