Cleopatra’s Relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony
Antony, the heroic leader of the forces that defeat Brutus and the other conspirators, is also the title character in another Shakespearean. Mark Antony's motivation is to avenge Caesar and to kill the conspirators is to; He also doesn't want to let Brutus and Cassius get away with the. Marcus Antonius commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire. Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals . Crassus, had developed a positive political relationship with Julius Caesar.
The chief cause of his political challenges concerned debt forgiveness. One of the Tribunes for 47 BC, Publius Cornelius Dolabellaa former general under Pompey, proposed a law which would have canceled all outstanding debts.
Antony opposed the law for political and personal reasons: When Dolabella sought to enact the law by force and seized the Roman ForumAntony responded by unleashing his soldiers upon the assembled mass. Antony's violent reaction had caused Rome to fall into a state of anarchy. Caesar sought to mend relations with the populist leader; he was elected to a third term as Consul for 46 BC, but proposed the Senate should transfer the consulship to Dolabella.
When Antony protested, Caesar was forced to withdraw the motion out of shame. Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as Consul instead. After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra and their son to Rome.
Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule. When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over. During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia. Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia. Assassination of Julius Caesar Ides of March[ edit ] Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long.
Caesar planned a new invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name. The reconciliation came soon after Antony rejected an offer by Gaius Treboniusone of Caesar's generals, to join a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. The festival was held in honor of Lupathe she-wolf who suckled the infant orphans Romulus and Remusthe founders of Rome.
Caesar had enacted a number of constitutional reforms which centralized effectively all political powers within his own hands. He was granted further honors, including a form of semi-official cultwith Antony as his high priest. Caesar's political rivals feared these reforms were his attempts at transforming the Republic into an open monarchy.
During the festival's activities, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diademwhich Caesar refused.
The event presented a powerful message: By refusing it, Caesar demonstrated he had no intention of making himself King of Rome. Antony's motive for such actions is not clear and it is unknown if he acted with Caesar's prior approval or on his own.
A group of Senators resolved to kill Caesar to prevent him from seizing the throne. Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot, winning over the chief assassins to the cause of tyrannicideBrutus, with his family's history of deposing Rome's kings, became their leader. Antony was supposed to attend with Caesar, but was waylaid at the door by one of the plotters and prevented from intervening.
According to the Greek historian Plutarchas Caesar arrived at the Senate, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Roman historian Eutropiusaround 60 or more men participated in the assassination.
Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from the blood loss attributable to multiple stab wounds. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome. The conspirators, who styled themselves the Liberatores "The Liberators"had barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill for their own safety. Though they believed Caesar's death would restore the Republic, Caesar had been immensely popular with the Roman middle and lower classeswho became enraged upon learning a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion.
Antony, as the sole Consul, soon took the initiative and seized the state treasury. CalpurniaCaesar's widow, presented him with Caesar's personal papers and custody of his extensive property, clearly marking him as Caesar's heir and leader of the Caesarian faction.
Lepidus wanted to storm the Capitol, but Antony preferred a peaceful solution as a majority of both the Liberators and Caesar's own supporters preferred a settlement over civil war. Caesar's assassins would be pardoned of their crimes and, in return, all of Caesar's actions would be ratified. Antony also agreed to accept the appointment of his rival Dolabella as his Consular colleague to replace Caesar. This compromise was a great success for Antony, who managed to simultaneously appease Caesar's veterans, reconcile the Senate majority, and appear to the Liberatores as their partner and protector.
Antony would struggle with Octavian for leadership of the Caesarian party following Caesar's assassination. On 19 March, Caesar's will was opened and read. In it, Caesar posthumously adopted his great-nephew Gaius Octavius and named him his principal heir. Then only 19 years old and stationed with Caesar's army in Macedonia, the youth became a member of Caesar's Julian clanchanging his name to "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus" Octavian in accordance with the conventions of Roman adoption.
Though not the chief beneficiary, Antony did receive some bequests. Caesar's funeral was held on 20 March. Antony, as Caesar's faithful lieutenant and reigning Consul, was chosen to preside over the ceremony and to recite the elegy. During the demagogic speech, he enumerated the deeds of Caesar and, publicly reading his will, detailed the donations Caesar had left to the Roman people. Antony then seized the blood-stained toga from Caesar's body and presented it to the crowd.
Worked into a fury by the bloody spectacle, the assembly rioted.
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Several buildings in the Forum and some houses of the conspirators were burned to the ground. Panicked, many of the conspirators fled Italy. Such an assignment, in addition to being unworthy of their rank, would have kept them far from Rome and shifted the balance towards Antony.
Refusing such secondary duties, the two traveled to Greece instead. Additionally, Cleopatra left Rome to return to Egypt. Despite the provisions of Caesar's will, Antony proceeded to act as leader of the Caesarian faction, including appropriating for himself a portion of Caesar's fortune rightfully belonging to Octavian. Antony enacted the Lex Antoniawhich formally abolished the Dictatorship, in an attempt to consolidate his power by gaining the support of the Senatorial class.
He also enacted a number of laws he claimed to have found in Caesar's papers to ensure his popularity with Caesar's veterans, particularly by providing land grants to them.
Lepidus, with Antony's support, was named Pontifex Maximus to succeed Caesar. Surrounding himself with a bodyguard of over six thousand of Caesar's veterans, Antony presented himself as Caesar's true successor, largely ignoring Octavian.
Although Antony had amassed political support, Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the Caesarian faction. The Senatorial Republicans increasingly viewed Antony as a new tyrant.
Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.
By summer 44 BC, Antony was in a difficult position due to his actions regarding his compromise with the Liberatores following Caesar's assassination.
He could either denounce the Liberatores as murderers and alienate the Senate or he could maintain his support for the compromise and risk betraying the legacy of Caesar, strengthening Octavian's position. In either case, his situation as ruler of Rome would be weakened. Roman historian Cassius Dio later recorded that while Antony, as reigning Consul, maintained the advantage in the relationship, the general affection of the Roman people was shifting to Octavian due to his status as Caesar's son.
Octavian continued to recruit Caesar's veterans to his side, away from Antony, with two of Antony's legions defecting in November 44 BC. At that time, Octavian, only a private citizenlacked legal authority to command the Republic's armies, making his command illegal. With popular opinion in Rome turning against him and his Consular term nearing its end, Antony attempted to secure a favorable military assignment to secure an army to protect himself.
The Senate, as was custom, assigned Antony and Dolabella the provinces of Macedonia and Syriarespectively, to govern in 43 BC after their Consular terms expired. Antony, however, objected to the assignment, preferring to govern Cisalpine Gaul which had been assigned to Decimus Junius Brutus Albinusone of Caesar's assassins.
For Julius Caesar, the union will unite two great lands, Egypt and Rome. He has an ultimate dream that his children would someday rule this land. Julius Caesar could have also seen Alexandria as a strategic location for his battles and as time pass by, Egypt could also form a powerful army to help him in his conquests. However, she was also married to Julius Caesar because Egypt allows polygamy.
Cleopatra and Julius Caesar spent time in Alexandria. The Roman leader, however, is called for to lead his army to battles. He emerged victorious but returned to Rome instead. Julius Caesar and Cleopatra also had a son, Caesarion.
Julius Caesar sent for his wife and son to be brought to Rome, with the great surprise of the Roman people. Out of respect for Julius Caesar, the people did not really give much attention to the fact that Julius Caesar married a foreign woman albeit having a Roman wife McManus, He was then given the ultimate title as a dictator for life, thus bearing an unmatched power for the rest of his life.
This was only a year after being declared a dictator or a ruler who has a complete power. Since Julius Caesar has made any changes without consulting the Senate, he became an unpopular person for them.
Before he is to leave for yet another conquest, he met with the Senate. There he met his end as he is stabbed to his death by all sixty Senate people, lead by Brutus and Cassius. Cleopatra and son, Caesarion left Rome, where a civil war broke. Cleopatra then announced her son with Julius Caesar as a co-ruler and re-acquired rule of Egypt. This is when her rule was entirely secured locally, unlike the two previous co-regents. Cleopatra and Mark Antony: Unlike Julius Caesar, he was from a prominent family since birth.
His grandfather was a known public speaker while his father was a military man. He is well-educated, polishing skills like public speaking and objective questioning.
He is known for both his positive and negative traits which were eminent from his youth. At the course of his career, he kept close to Julius Caesar. Mark Antony became an ally of Julius Caesar. It was also Julius Caesar who appointed him as a consul. It is this status that spared his life after the assassination of Julius Caesar. He then rose to power and hunted those who have assassinated Julius Caesar.
Mark Antony also became part of the second Triumvirate.
Mark Antony - HISTORY
Cleopatra and Mark Antony are both connected to Julius Caesar. She is a former wife, and he is a loyal ally and friend. Cleopatra, on the other hand, might have found a sense of stability with him since he is becoming one of the most powerful in Rome. She found in him the opportunity to restore the old glory of her Ptolemaic decent.
Mark Antony possessed characteristics different from that of Julius Caesar but he is of the same political stature. The first supper impressed Mark Antony that he wanted to surpass such splendid preparation, but he miserably failed. With his great humor, he managed to keep a good nature about it.
After this, there were accounts which states that they spent holidays together cited in Cleopatra…, Cleopatra is able to charm Mark Antony by being at his side all the time.
Mark Antony married Cleopatra. Cleopatra is actually already the fourth wife to Mark Antony. Mark Antony then married Octavia Minor after having children with Cleopatra. He did this to claim a stronger hold of power in Rome. During his flight to plot a war against Parthia, he was going to need the help of Egyptian army forces, not to mention money. This is when he arranged for a second meeting with Cleopatra.
- Cleopatra’s Relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony
The initial meeting between Cleopatra and Mark Antony bore them with twins, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene while the second meeting brought them their third child, Ptolemy Philadelphos Stritof, n. These children are well provided for by their father, Mark Antony. They are given part of the land of Rome, including Cyprus, Crete and Syria, through their mother Lewis, This distribution, lead to an even wider gap between Octavian and Mark Antony. The second Triumvirate is down to two, and then as Octavian wished to be the sole ruler of the Roman land, he declared war to the queen of Egypt.
The battle between the two leading armies of Rome came to an end with Mark Antony on the losing end. He then fled to Alexandria with Cleopatra. As the forces closed in, he committed suicide. Cleopatra also committed suicide. She, whom has captured the hearts of two great men, has left the name to equal beauty, seduction, love and femininity all in one. There are legacies that no other woman in the world has achieved.
Cleopatra left legacies that have made the past great, the present wondering and the future still searching. Cleopatra was a person who later considered the living representation of divine mother Isis. She was their living goddess Egyptology. Even during her brief stay in Rome, albeit the love for Julius Caesar, she was firm on her goddess stature and decent. In the years after, her goddess status has not faded. She became an immortal pharaoh of Egypt. Cleopatra also became an ultimate debate topic of historians and archeologists.
Her beauty is one legacy that will hold different views. There are different artifacts that state that she does not really have that astonishing physical beauty. There are accounts that express her utter beauty. At the end of the day, it is her legacy that beauty does not solely rely on physical attributes but on intellect and the way she treated the men in her life.
There are different accounts of Cleopatra, some are good and some are bad. The difference lies on whose perception they take. The Romans have a shady account of her. They looked at her for her relationships with their leaders Tyldesley, As mentioned, at an early age, Cleopatra single-handedly led her people. She has made very intelligent reforms in their lives. Though at the verge of a falling Egypt, she had saved her people from famine.