We need a wide range of ideas, customs, and wisdom to solve problems and In order to set some goals related to building relationships between cultures. Cultural and historical background to the Shahname. Many of these precious manuscripts dating from 13th th centuries have survived, and are held in. Answer to what was the relationship between civilization and culture and how did art play a role in holding the two together.
Genres are consequently elusive, and a story can shift genre according to both performance and context. However there are some general features about genres that make it possible to identify them. You can look for: These are rich sources for research, and will reveal some of the formal features that make up a genre. Epics are usually long cycles of connected, or branching, poems.
They are often concerned with battles and heroic deeds, combining historical fact with romance, adventure, magic, the supernatural, and the Gods. They often tell the stories of several generations of families. The epic tradition is one of performance, so the text is the result of a living performance tradition which would have incorporated both poetry and prose, speech and song, and might have been accompanied by music.
A Persian Epic When Ferdowsi was writing Persia was much bigger than it is now, it extended beyond the borders of current Iran. Persian based languages are also spoken by tribes and communities outside Iran: Dari, Baluchi and Pashtu are spoken in Afghanistan and Pakistan: Tadjik is spoken in Tajikistan: Kurdish is spoken in Turkey and Iraq; Osset is spoken in the Caucusus. These cultures know the Shahname, consider it their own and have their own versions of the stories. Even within Iran there are different versions of the Shahaname in different regions of the country.
Ferdowsi used pre-Islamic sources for his epic in an Islamic Iran. He wrote his poem in Persian rather than Arabic, creating a national epic that reconstructed the history and myth of the ancient Persian peoples.
Consequently the Shahname has an important place in Persian culture and in the hearts of Persian people.
Listening to the story, the audience find their place in community and in the wider cosmos, through listening to a story their identity is renewed. Attitudes towards to the Shahname have shifted with each generation and its concerns, with governments and the political situation.
The text itself might change only slightly, but the meanings of the text and peoples' relationships towards those meanings might change dramatically.
As a specifically Persian story it has always represented a memory of a pre-Islamic state, but attitudes towards this pre-Islamic content have ranged from national pride, to censorship. The Shahname has been used in a myriad of contradictory ways; to uphold moral values; to define what is truly Persian; as propaganda to destroy an imperial past; to promote literacy in state literacy programmes; to create social harmony. I am interested to find out what the Shahname currently means for Persians today in both Iran and outside their country.
How do you spell Ferdowsi?Dr. Amos Wilson Culture Is About Solving Problems & Meeting Needs
There are loads of spellings of his name: I have used Ferdowsiwhich seems to be the current spelling used by most academics. What happened was that in the beginning, the Word had been cast to earth from God's throne, but Firdowsi then raised it on high and recast it once again upon that throne.
Ways of telling the Shahaname Everyone knows the stories of the Shahname, and parts of stories, sections of tales, fragments of poems, will be told by parents to children, by teachers in schools, by mullahs in the muktab - Koranic study groups, and by Sufi dervishes who used the text as starting points for philosophical and spiritual debate.
The Shahname is also an important part of the activities at the zurkhane - the house of strength.
Shahname Historical and Cultural Questions
Every town has at least one zurkhane. The zurkhane is a kind of gymnasium where young men practise a series of challenging physical feats, from lifting huge weights to wrestling. These exercises are a kind of meditation and are accompanied by a musician who plays the drum and reads aloud from the Shahname. The physical feats echo those of Rostam and other heroes in the text. The manuscript of the Shahname is kept in special place in the zurkhane.
It is worth looking zurkhane up on the net because you will be able to look at photos of actual zurkhanes in Iran. The men from the most respected zurkhanes also give performances, and have even come to the UK on a couple of occasions and I have seen them perform. The storyteller of the Shahname But along with all these ways of telling, there were, and still are, professional storytellers whose life's work and art was to perform the whole of the Shahname.
They are called Naqqal. A direct translation of naqqal is 'transmitter': Naqqali were so important and so loved, there was an old tradition that the King had his own personal storytellers.
These tellers worked as a team, and had to be ready to entertain the king night and day, whenever he called!
As Persian society is segregated, only men became naqqali. However my own long research about Turkic and Central Asian culture revealed many female storytellers, so things might not be as they seem, and this is an area worth looking at. Naqqali told in the kavahane - coffee houses frequented mostly by men, although this is beginning to change. Naqqali also performed in private houses, the bazaar, and more recently on radio and TV and in theatres.
There are still naqqali performing, but sadly the art form is gradually diminishing.
ESL Conversation Questions - Culture (I-TESL-J)
Many descriptions of naqqali written in English come from people who travelled in Persia when it was still quite unknown to the West. Benjamin describes hearing storytellers in kavahanes: Benjamin, Persia and the Persians.
Tellers would also move from city to city, knowing when certain local festivals would be held and when the best crowds could be gathered. Winter was seen as a time for telling.
- Thai Civilization/Culture & Civilization
Summer was a time when everyone should be working, maximising the weather and light. Thida Saraya says that we can judge a civilization of any society from the following criteria: Technological development; The development should fulfil its social need and have some exchange with other communities as well. With technological skills, the people could produce their social individualized characters. Variety of professionals; The society should be composed of people in various professions.
The people who are responsible in any field of work, for example, administration, politics, economics, and society can set up systems for their social and cultural development until those systems are recognized.
Social institutions; The society can set up its own institutions to manage social affairs in stead of the kinship system, and Integration of its own cultural characteristics; This may reflect on the patterns of art and the advancement of literature.
What causes the rise of civilizations? What factors support their growth? Some social scientists decide that factors of geography are the most important to the rise of civilization. Others stress economic resources, food supply, contact with older civilizations, and so on.
Shahname Historical and Cultural Questions
Under geographical conditions, Ellsworth Huntington, an American geographer, insisted that no nation rose to the highest cultural status except under the influence of a climatic stimulus. Related to the climatic hypothesis is the soil-exhaustion theory.
This group of theory believes that the majestic civilizations that once flourished in Mesopotamia, Palestine, Greece, Italy, China, and Mexico were ultimately doomed by the simple fact that their soil would no longer provide sufficient food for the population. Another theory about the origin of civilizations is adversity. Toynbee, a British historian, said that conditions of hardship or adversity are the real causes which have brought into existence superior cultures.
Such conditions constitute a: