Russia–Serbia relations - Wikipedia
Serbia's policies towards Kosovo have complicated its EU First, the EU has limited leverage on Serbia's relationship with Kosovo due to the lack of .. in terms of outcome as defined above and suggest that Serbia has not shown .. for the 'normal' development of Kosovo policies in Serbia – it meant that. this dialogue should be achieving significant progress toward normal relations, The past months have brought very mixed news from Kosovo and Serbia. rule, and its desire to balance its orientation toward the West with its historical ties to Russia strengthen its own relationship with Serbia through deepening . Kosovo's independence, Serbia, Russia, China, and several European countries have not 3 Definitions of the region known as the Balkans vary.
Municipalities have the right to associate with each other and to participate in the selection of local police commanders. Some municipalities with predominantly Serb populations have special rights, such as the operation of a secondary health system, oversight of postsecondary education, and management of cultural and religious sites. Justice The Supreme Court of Kosovo is the highest judicial authority for all matters except constitutional questions, which are decided by the Constitutional Court.
For the Supreme Court and lower courts of appeal, at least 15 percent of the judges must hail from minority communities. An independent judicial council ensures the impartiality of the judicial system.
The judicial council also recommends candidates for the judiciary to the president of Kosovo, who makes the appointments. Political process Suffrage is universal from age Postindependence political parties are split largely along ethnic lines. Headed by the Kosovar Albanian nationalist writer Ibrahim Rugovathe LDK in declared the creation of the Republic of Kosovo, which remained internationally unrecognized. There are a number of smaller Albanian parties, as well as several parties that represent the Serb, Bosniak, Roma, Turkish, and other communities.
In the corps was replaced by the Kosovo Security Force, a multiethnic, civilian-controlled, lightly armed military organization.
- Russia–Serbia relations
Law enforcement is the responsibility of the multiethnic Kosovo Police Service. A contingent of officials from the European Union monitored and temporarily assisted with policing in postindependence Kosovo. Health and welfare A public system provides subsidized health care to citizens.
However, many public clinics suffer from limited or poorly maintained equipment and insufficient staff. More costly private clinics have increased in number. Life expectancy for men is about 70 years, which is just under the European average. For women in Kosovo, life expectancy is slightly higher but remains well below the European average of nearly In the postindependence era many public services in addition to health care—e.
Water quality is poor in many urban areas, and most rural areas are not connected to any public water system. Housing Traditional homes in Kosovo were built to house large extended families. Some analysts, however, believe ongoing disagreements over Kosovo's status could slow Belgrade's timetable. This figure excludes loans from the European Investment Bank and bilateral aid from EU member states.
At present, there are roughly EU-funded projects in partnership with the Serbian government, businesses, and civil society organizations. However, the EU has not made implementing the sanctions a condition for progress toward Serbia's membership at this stage. Nevertheless, some believe EU attitudes toward Serbia reinforce the view of many in Belgrade that Serbia has not been fully embraced by Brussels and that it would be premature for Serbia to greatly distance itself from Moscow until it receives a stronger commitment from Brussels.
The European migration crisis, in which hundreds of thousands of migrants and refugees entered the EU via the Balkan route, was a reminder of the region's strategic importance.
The EU is also worried about potential political instability and the influence of third powers, such as Russia, China, and Turkey, in the Western Balkans. Proponents of EU enlargement see it as the main tool to assure peace, stability, prosperity, and the rule of law in the region. Some observers speculate that the EU also feels the need for a new mission and purpose, such as integrating the Western Balkans, in the post-Brexit era.
The relationship has improved since Kosovo's declaration of independence.
Russia supports Serbia's nonrecognition stance and uses its permanent seat on the U. Security Council to block Kosovo's admission. Russia's current influence in Serbia is partly rooted in its popular support.
For instance, public opinion polls suggest that most Serbians identify Russia as Serbia's closest friend and Vladimir Putin as their favorite foreign leader Germany's Angela Merkel placed second. Kremlin-linked media outlets such as Sputnik and RT operate in the Balkans and amplify anti-Western narratives. Political and economic ties between Moscow and Belgrade strengthened after the breakup of Yugoslavia, particularly during the NATO campaign against Serbia's actions in Kosovo, which Moscow opposed.
Russia supplies Serbia with all of its natural gas, which in amounted to around 2 billion cubic meters bcm. In Decembera new gas agreement between the two countries pledged an increase in Russian gas deliveries to Serbia to 5 bcm through Russia also has invested heavily in Serbia's oil and natural gas industry, and Russia's Gazprom has majority shares in Serbia's NIS energy enterprise. The extent of Russian influence over Serbia's political structures is difficult to assess.
Moscow reportedly provides financial and political support to several Serbian political parties. The Kremlin claims the center provides emergency humanitarian response training for Serbian first responders. However, the center is relatively close to the NATO peacekeeping forces in neighboring Kosovo, and the United States and the EU have expressed concern that Russia is using the center for military and intelligence operations.
Serbia will bear the cost of upgrading and modernizing this equipment. In addition, media reports suggested Serbia was interested in acquiring a Russian air defense system and establishing a facility to repair Russian MIL helicopters, which some analysts likened to "opening a Russian military base on [Serbian] territory.
Nevertheless, some analysts believe Belgrade is subjected to pressure from Russia, which hopes to thwart further NATO expansion into the Western Balkans. Serbia's relationship with Russia experiences occasional tensions. For example, relations with Moscow received a blow in when Belgrade was reportedly caught off guard by President Putin's decision to cancel the South Stream gas pipeline project, which would have run through Serbia and provided it with gas and transit fee revenue.
It is unclear whether Russia's replacement for the project, the TurkStream pipeline, will come to fruition and, if so, what role Serbia would play in the transmission of gas into Europe. Additionally, Belgrade's relations with Moscow soured somewhat after Belgrade publicly called for respecting Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity after Moscow annexed Crimea and aided separatists in eastern Ukraine.
Serbia, however, did not join the EU and the United States in imposing political or economic sanctions on Russia for its actions in Ukraine, as noted above. Relations with the United States Inthe United States broke off relations with Belgrade when Serbia conducted an ethnic cleansing and deportation campaign against its ethnic Albanian minority population, primarily in the province of Kosovo.
Since Serbia's transition, the United States has viewed a stable, democratic Serbia as essential to stability in the Balkan region.
Although the United States has offered to "agree to disagree" with Serbia over Kosovo, the issue may continue to affect relations, particularly as the United States generally remains Kosovo's most influential international supporter.
In earlyU. Relations were eventually smoothed over when, during a July visit to Belgrade by the then-U. Relations again hit a slight snag in Octoberwhen the U.
Serbia: Background and U.S. Relations - kultnet.info
Similar complaints again erupted in Belgrade after the October visit of U. According to the U. Department of State, targeted U. Assistance focuses on supporting democracy and the rule of law, rooting out corruption, supporting civil society organizations and independent press, supporting economic development, strengthening Serbia's border regime, and building positive bilateral relationships with neighboring countries.
Department of State's Trafficking in Persons report, Serbia is "a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor. However, Serbia remains listed as a Tier 2 country because the State Department has determined that, despite these efforts, the Serbian government has not yet fully complied with the minimum standards for eliminating trafficking.
Department of State's report on terrorism, Serbian law enforcement and security agencies receive assistance and training from the United States. Over time, Congress has established Member caucuses on both Kosovo and Serbia and has held several hearings on the Western Balkans. Inthe Serbia Caucus in the House noted the th anniversary of Woodrow Wilson's "day of prayer" for the people of Serbia.
Inthe Serbian diaspora and Eastern Orthodox Church sent a letter to Congress regarding the discussions surrounding a possible land swap between Serbia and Kosovo. Many Members of Congress support Kosovo's independence, the efforts at reconciliation between Serbia and Kosovo, and EU membership for both countries, but other Members have expressed skepticism about Serbia's relations with Russia or the future viability of the Serbia-Kosovo coexistence.
Over the past several years, Congress has maintained a steady interest in the stability of the Western Balkans and has supported the efforts of those countries to join the EU and NATO. House and Senate committees have held several hearings on the Balkans during the th and th Congresses. Some Members of Congress also visited countries in the Western Balkans in and The United States has viewed a democratic and prosperous Serbia, at peace with its neighbors and integrated into Euro-Atlantic institutions, as an important part of its key policy goal of a Europe "whole, free, and at peace.
Another 50 Bosnian Serb children from the same town arrived in Thessaloniki on 10 January for a two-week vacation with families in Kavala and Imathia. It was the fourth hosting mission that had been organized by the Central Union of Municipalities and Communities of Greece in cooperation with the Red Cross that year. In total, the Central Union of Municipalities and Communities of Greece had been responsible for hosting more than 2, Serbian children by that point.
Greek Ambassador to Belgrade Panayiotis Vlassopoulos stated that hospitality for these children in Greece constituted only a portion of the humanitarian aid which Greek local governments and organizations have been providing for Yugoslavia since war erupted. He added that these initiatives contribute to the strengthening of Greek—Serbian relations.
The children were accompanied by their teachers so that they'd be able to keep up with their studies. The mayor of Kavala, Stathis Efifillidis, was quoted as saying that, "All the residents of the city have shown their love for the children. InGreek families hosted Serbian orphans from 20 December to 6 January The hospitality program, like many others, was held with the cooperation of the Greek Red Cross and the Yugoslav Red Cross.
It was the second time that year that Serbian children were hosted.
Serbia: Background and U.S. Relations
Since the Greek and Serbian Red Cross launched the hosting of children from Serbia inan estimated 16, children have stayed with Greek families. As a result, very close friendship ties have been forged and, in most cases, contact between the children and the host families continues. When, in SeptemberPatriarch Pavle of the Serbian Orthodox Church visited Cyprus, he presented Archbishop Chrysostomos of the Church of Cyprus with an icon of the Virgin Mary as a token of appreciation for the help and support the Church of Cyprus and the people of Cyprus had shown to the people of Serbia.
Archbishop Chrysostomos praised the close relations between the Churches of Serbia and Cyprus, remarking that the presence of Patriarch Pavle was proof of the unity and brotherhood between the two Churches. Patriarch Pavle compared the situations that Greeks in Cyprus face to those that Serbs face, saying that both Cyprus and Serbia were struggling for their freedom. He also reaffirmed Serbian support to the Greeks of Cyprus. In an address at Belgrade's Cathedral, Archbishop Christodoulos referred to the help which the Greeks had offered to the Serbs.
At the ceremony Patriarch Pavle was quoted as saying that, "The Greek Church has always sympathised with the troubles we have been in, rendering us support as well as aid in medicines and food". During the first days of Holy Week, the Rev. Most of the expected cost, estimated at over 30 million euros, will be provided by Greece.
By Junethe government had already disbursedeuros for the first phase of the work. According to Assistant Minister of Interior Predrag Maric, over firemen signed up for Greece in less than an hour. The Ambassador of Greece said that that day showed once again the excellent cooperation between the two nations thanking everyone who had taken part in extinguishing fires.
He also remarked that in the last ten days, Serbian pilots and technicians showed great skill in extinguishing fires, which moved the whole of Greece and the Greek nation in particular.