Odyssey Book 10 - ProProfs Quiz
Odyssey Quizzes & Trivia . What did Circe turn some of Odysseus's crew into? A. Snakes. B. How long did Odysseus and his crew stay with Circe? A. Are You The Type Of Person Who Cheats In A Relationship? Test. and find homework help for other The Odyssey questions at eNotes. is not only a staple of the plot, but also a symbol of their enduring relationship, in Classical literature; Odysseus tests Penelope many times before he is willing to many different chairs, and many different beds (Calypso's, Circe's, even beds of leaves) . The Odyssey study guide contains a biography of Homer, literature essays, 9 What animals are Odysseus' men turned into by Circe? Horses.
Odysseus Relationships by Emily Rivers on Prezi
Just as I worked to draw out a fuller Circe from the ancient anxieties about female power, so I wanted to explore the fuller Penelope behind the modest, model woman. I sifted through the Odyssey for a few intriguing details to shape my portrait.
The first came after Penelope has learned about the plot against her son, Telemachus. It is a surprising simile. In the Iliad and Odyssey, lions are emblems of great warriors, and Achilles famously compares himself to one at the height of his bloodlust. I had always seen Penelope as strong-willed, but this encouraged me to imagine for her a quiet ferocity. In an early scene in the Odyssey, Telemachus rebukes Penelope for speaking up, proclaiming himself master of the house and sending her back to her rooms.Relationship quiz: How long will your relationship last? Love personality test - Guess who you are
But as a novelist, I wondered if such an interaction might arise from the dynamic of a single mother and her only son. Or could it be the opposite — some sort of stalling technique the two of them have conspired to play out in front of her suitors? For me this moment felt more telling than their joyful reunion. Charming someone with words, while plotting something else: Her ability to manipulate people to her advantage matches his own.
They are kindred spirits. It would be satisfying to end on that thought: Yet however kindred they are, they can never be equals. Penelope has only one: It is her own Scylla and Charybdis, but unlike Odysseus, who passes the monsters only once, it is a path Penelope must walk anew each day. They stay with Aeolusthe master of the winds, who gives Odysseus a leather bag containing all the winds, except the west wind, a gift that should have ensured a safe return home.
However, the sailors foolishly open the bag while Odysseus sleeps, thinking that it contains gold. All of the winds fly out, and the resulting storm drives the ships back the way they had come, just as Ithaca comes into sight.
After pleading in vain with Aeolus to help them again, they re-embark and encounter the cannibalistic Laestrygonians. Odysseus' ship is the only one to escape.
He sails on and visits the witch-goddess Circe. She turns half of his men into swine after feeding them cheese and wine. Hermes warns Odysseus about Circe and gives him a drug called molywhich resists Circe's magic.
Circe, being attracted to Odysseus' resistance, falls in love with him and releases his men. Odysseus and his crew remain with her on the island for one year, while they feast and drink. Finally, Odysseus' men convince him to leave for Ithaca. Guided by Circe's instructions, Odysseus and his crew cross the ocean and reach a harbor at the western edge of the world, where Odysseus sacrifices to the dead and summons the spirit of the old prophet Tiresias for advice.
Next Odysseus meets the spirit of his own mother, who had died of grief during his long absence. From her, he learns for the first time news of his own household, threatened by the greed of Penelope 's suitors. Odysseus also talks to his fallen war comrades and the mortal shade of Heracles. Odysseus and the SirensUlixes mosaic at the Bardo National Museum in TunisTunisia, 2nd century AD Odysseus' ship passing between the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdisfrom a fresco by Alessandro Allori — Returning to Circe's island, she advises them on the remaining stages of the journey.
They skirt the land of the Sirenspass between the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdiswhere they row directly between the two. However, Scylla drags the boat towards her by grabbing the oars and eats six men. They land on the island of Thrinacia. There, Odysseus' men ignore the warnings of Tiresias and Circe and hunt down the sacred cattle of the sun god Helios.
Helios tells Zeus what happened and demands Odysseus' men be punished or else he will take the sun and shine it in the Underworld. Zeus fulfills Helios' demands by causing a shipwreck during a thunderstorm in which all but Odysseus drown. He washes ashore on the island of Ogygiawhere Calypso compels him to remain as her lover for seven years. He finally escapes when Hermes tells Calypso to release Odysseus. Odysseus departs from the Land of the Phaeacianspainting by Claude Lorrain Odysseus is shipwrecked and befriended by the Phaeacians.
After telling them his story, the Phaeacians, led by King Alcinousagree to help Odysseus get home. They deliver him at night, while he is fast asleep, to a hidden harbor on Ithaca.
He finds his way to the hut of one of his own former slaves, the swineherd Eumaeusand also meets up with Telemachus returning from Sparta. Athena disguises Odysseus as a wandering beggar to learn how things stand in his household. The return of Ulysses, illustration by E.
The wily wife: why Homer's patient, faithful Penelope is more cunning than Odysseus
Synge from the Story of the World children's book series book 1: On the shores of Great Sea When the disguised Odysseus returns after 20 years, he is recognized only by his faithful dog, Argos. Penelope announces in her long interview with the disguised hero that whoever can string Odysseus' rigid bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axe shafts may have her hand.
According to Bernard Knox"For the plot of the Odyssey, of course, her decision is the turning point, the move that makes possible the long-predicted triumph of the returning hero". Odysseus swears her to secrecy, threatening to kill her if she tells anyone. When the contest of the bow begins, none of the suitors is able to string the bow of Apollo but then, after all the suitors have given up, the disguised Odysseus comes along, bends the bow, shoots the arrow, and wins the contest.
Having done so, he proceeds to slaughter the suitors beginning with Antinous whom he finds drinking from Odysseus' cup with help from Telemachus and two of Odysseus' servants, Eumaeus the swineherd and Philoetius the cowherd.
They were related to irrationality and subjectivity, reinforcing their relation to nature. This connection linked them to social reproduction, early childcare and those tasks that culture was designed to control and re- press She dwells in a forest and her potions are made of natural resources. She transforms humans into animals and her house is guarded by wild ani- mals. All of this reflect the connection female goddess-nature.
She is driven by her body. Lust drives her to go to bed with Odysseus. By acting as the active sexual partner, the goddess inverts the natural order 25, threatening social boundaries between men and women. Women that deviated from their social role were seen as acting against their rational soul and moving into the irrational which lead to disaster Women that were without a kurios, or male authority, were seeing as an anomaly in the patriarchal system They were presented as incapable of controlling their sexual desires and keen to evoke into the irrational.
Men had to control women instincts.
Mandas writes that there are not many evidences of real Greek witches. All literary witch fig- ures are foreigners. The cases of Medea and Circe are two good examples.
Using foreigners as scapegoats has been used in many societies. It is not surprising that these or other literary figures were presented as practicing erotic magic to fulfil their uncontrolled passions28 and that they were non-Greeks. Portraying Circe as a female goddess that tries to sexually induce Odysseus reminds us of fifth century Athenian courtesans, who used magic to attract male partners.
Erotic magic was presented as part of the equipment used by courtesans and prostitutes to obtain male partners and to maintain male faithfulness towards them Circe is probably considered the first por- trait of what will become the classic witch in Greek and Roman literature In fact, Circe is represented as a sorceress on the fifth century BC.
Stanford writes that even though there are not many evidences that confirm that 26 Mandas The witch of the woods is quite a common story on traditional folklore.
We find mainly two types: In the Epic of Gilgamesh is found the beautiful enchantress Ishtar, who seems to reflect Circe.
Magical goddesses are not so typical on Greek mythology. They reflect better eastern myths. Page writes that the Odyssey is a variation of Mesopotamian epic narratives.
She is a daughter of Helios, the Sun god, and of the Okeanid Perse34, both non-pantheon gods. She is a sister of Aietes and aunt of Medea, another eastern type character. Medea is a sorceress that murdered her own children, and a sister of Pasiphae of Crete, who mated with a bull to engender the Minotaur All of this women acted unconventionally, against the rules stablished by Greek society.
Circe lives at Aiaia, an island situated on the East, where the sun rises and dawn has her palace and danc- ing-floor Even her palace reflects an eastern type building rather than a Greek one, sur- rounded by a park and filled with wild animals.
Brilliant writes that Circe signifies a great danger, being vice and lust the consequences for anyone encountering her She is motivated by her personal satisfaction and pleasure She uses persuasion to attract men, offering them hospitality which turns to be a trap She is portrayed as the Mistress of the Beasts, exemplified by the tame wolfs and lions that stay by her side.
It is also about the oddness of her home, a kind of paradise ruled by the goddess. A place where beasts are do- mesticated. The similarities between Circe and Aphrodite are also clear, as the latter is very much related to the East and she is also portrayed as the Mistress of the Beasts Circe is the anti-social goddess who influenced representations of posterior sorceresses and magicians.
Magicians are marginal figures of society and women were marginal in Greece. Probably women were at risk to be framed as magic practicians.
Those that did not follow the established rules were at risk to be targeted.
Odyssey Book 10
Circe is acting against these rules. She is an in- dependent woman, unmarried, living without a patron and a foreigner inhabiting the far East At some point men are divided into two groups and the group led by Eurylochos, which according to Gantz is clearly the loser42, goes to meet Circe.
Eurylochos led twenty-two men into the palace but stays outside. Then, the crew are invited to a drink and Circe transforms them into swine.
Eurylochos did not en- ter the palace, as if he thought that there was some deception It is clear that when the men are entering the palace something is going to happen. I wonder why all men were trans- formed into pigs and Eurylochos, the one who was portrayed to have bad temper and to give bad counsel, was saved from Circe. First they arrived near to where she lived.
All of these characteristics reminded Greeks of their home so they felt welcomed to her palace Circe offered them honey, cheese, barley and Pramnian wine in a poisonous potion. This wel- coming drink is clearly a goddess anti-social behaviour In Ancient Greece, the hospitality 42 Gantz Instead, she offers them food for the dead, which clearly was not within hospitality customs. It might be that the drink was offered to them with the intention of introducing the crew into her realm, the realm of the Underworld.
Then she touches them with her wand, which is an aggressive and anti-social behaviour. Female usage of magical potions reflects how male and female gender was socially con- structed. Love-potions in ancient myths were mainly used by wives and concubines against their husbands and lovers The use of magical love-potions was defined as pharmakis or pharmakeutria Circe though is described as using many drugs, which in Ancient Greece was named polu-pharmakos The potion she offered Odysseus could be interpreted as an intention to make him forget his home The moly plant that Hermes gives to Odysseus is mentioned but Homer does not explain how it works.
In fact, Homer did not use much of his time in writing about the magic plant or about magic in general. The structure of the episodes tell us that Homer did make some parts long and some short and seems that the magical part of the story was made short in purpose. This seems to imply that the writer wanted to reduce the magic part in the story Regardless of the writer intentions, magic has become a big matter for discussion in modern times.
This protective pharmakon is given by Hermes, who was the leader for guiding those that go to Hades He is the psychopomp of the hero. In previous stories from Uruk and Sultantepe the 49 Faraone Underworld and Heaven were not connected. There were guides such as Hermes, who con- nected both worlds The root moly itself symbolises the theme of reversal. The root is black and the flower is white as milk56, which connects it with this reverse role of woman and her conflict with culture.
After Odysseus felt threaten by Circe wand 57, his response is to sheathe the sword. The attack of Odysseus over Circe is very old, probably from the Akkadian tale of Nergal and Ereshki- gal.
Nergal and Odysseus undertake dangerous journeys and encounter powerful goddesses who are mean to men This manner of neutralising magical arts is common in other non- Greek stories.
Similar stories exist on the sanskrit story of Bhimaparakrama and on the Bedr Basim It seems that Odysseus intended to inject no harm to Circe, and its significance might be just talismanic60, just as the mentioned protective talismans used in Near Eastern cultures.
If we return now to the crew transformed into swine, Hill writes that archeological evidence probes the transformation was not just into swine, but into other wild animals such as boars, donkeys and gooses. These findings hint at the possibility that other versions of the same sto- ry did present Circe as using her potion to convert men into different animals This might 55 Crane Stanford writes that the wand that Circe used for magic, in reality is just a long stick to control her menagerie, which she used to bring Odysseus companions out of the sty and tried to use to direct Odysseus to it.
This view is based on the fact that Circe is not a nordic witch, a place where wands were used, but a semi-oriental potion-enchantress.