# Relationship between bit rate and baud

### The Difference between Bit rate vs Baud rate & their relationship

Answer (1 of 4): The two terms are used frequently in data communication are bit rate and the baud rate. Bit rate can be defined as the number of bits transmitted. Baud rate represents the number of times per second a signal (changing from zero to one or one to zero) or symbol (the connection's voltage. This article explains what is the difference between Bit rate and Baud rate, how to calculate baud rate,relationship b/w bit rate & baud rate.

If these symbols — the indivisible elements of your data encoding — are not bits, the baud rate will be lower than the bit rate by the factor of bits per symbol. This confusion arose because the early analog telephone modems weren't very complicated, so bps was equal to baud. That is, each symbol encoded one bit.

Later, to make modems faster, communications engineers invented increasingly clever ways to send more bits per symbol.

## What Is The Relationship Between Bit Rate And Baud Rate?

Imagine a communication system with a telescope on the near side of a valley and a guy on the far side holding up one hand or the other. Call his left hand "0" and his right hand "1," and you have a system for communicating one binary digit — one bit — at a time.

Now imagine that the guy on the far side of the valley is holding up playing cards instead of his bare hands. He is using a subset of the cards, ace through 8 in each suit, for a total of 32 cards.

Each card — each symbol — encodes 5 bits: You see how the analogy seems to break down: But, that just provides an opportunity to extend the analogy profitably. A communications system with many bits per symbol faces a similar difficulty, because the encoding schemes required to send multiple bits per symbol are much more complicated than those that send only one bit at a time.

To extend the analogy, then, the guy showing playing cards could have several people behind him sharing the work of finding the next card in the deck, handing him cards as fast as he can show them. The helpers are analogous to the more powerful processors required to produce the many-bits-per-baud encoding schemes.

That is to say, by using more processing power, System 2 can send data 5 times faster than the more primitive System 1. Historical Vignette What shall we do with our 5-bit code? It seems natural to an English speaker to use 26 of the 32 available code points for the English alphabet.

## Difference Between Bit Rate and Baud Rate

Digital data is very different from digital signal. The process of converting digital data to digital signal is called as line coding. Now, to discriminate between data and signal, data is what we need to send. But signal is what we can send. So, signal is the carrier which carries data. Also, keep in mind that the smallest entity of the data, that can represent a piece of information is called data element and shortest meaningful unit of a signal is called signal element.

Consider this as in the following scenario — Consider a train. Each carriage is a signal element. Each passenger inside the train is a data element. The train as a whole is a signal and all passengers together represent a data.

### Difference Between Bit Rate and Baud Rate (With Comparison Chart) - Tech Differences

Data rate and Signal rate: Data rate — Number of data elements transmitted per second. Signal rate — Number of signal elements transmitted per second. Now, the unit of data rate is bit rate.

From the previous example, we can see that, a carriage in a train can carry more than one person. So, if you consider the number of person is more than one per carriage, you can say that bit rate is greater than baud rate for the signal.

Calculating the baud rate: Baud rate is calculated using the below formula.