Internationally body mass index (BMI) values between ≥25 and . Body composition in Chinese subjects: relationship with age and disease. Objectives The relationship between body mass index (BMI) with mortality risk, in particular the BMI category associated with the lowest. Clin Cardiol. Nov;39(11) doi: /clc Epub Jul Association Between Body Mass Index and Age of Presentation With.
This is one of a growing number of studies that suggest for older people; BMI values associated with optimal health outcomes may differ from the general adult population. This is of vital importance since following general guidelines, many older people may be advised to lose weight inappropriately and have adverse health consequences. Other than bone mass, BMI consists of fat and lean mass.
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- Relation of Body Mass Index in Young Adulthood and Middle Age to Medicare Expenditures in Older Age
All these values change with age, the pattern of change differing between individuals. A study of changes in body composition with age measured using dual energy absorptiometry DEXA showed linear decline in lean and bone mass, while weight, BMI, fat mass and percentage fat followed a quadratic trend.
The relationship between body mass index and age at hepatocellular carcinoma onset
A prospective cohort study of 2, men and women aged 70 and over followed for a 3-year period showed decline in fat free mass as well as total body fat independent of the presence or absence of disease, greater decline being associated with worse health outcomes such as greater mortality, dependency and poor physical performance measures. Waist hip ratio, used as an indicator of central obesity in the general adult population, was not associated with any health outcomes or mortality [ 5 ].
These findings appear to contradict other large cohort studies of all ages including the elderly. However, the findings were confirmed by later cohort studies of older people aged 70 and over.
A year follow up of 4, men and 4, women aged 70—75 in Australia showed the lowest mortality risk in the overweight group, suggesting that current BMI thresholds may be too restrictive for older people [ 7 ]. Indeed the same finding applies when incident dementia was used as an outcome in men, those being overweight had a lower incidence of dementia compared with those with normal or obese BMI values [ 8 ].
A follow-up study of 1, adults aged 70—75 in Europe also found that lowest mortality risk at a BMI value of Older men may benefit from being slightly overweight and centrally obese with respect to survival over a 5-year period in a study of 4, community-living people using DEXA to measure the body composition [ 10 ].
Similarly, abdominal obesity also confers survival benefit over a 6-year period [ 11 ].What is BMI (Body Mass Index)?
The relationship between fatness and survival may be modulated by cardiorespiratory fitness. When the same cohort was followed up for 7 years, after adjusting for multiple confounders, those with the lowest quartile of BMI, body fat index and fat to lean mass ratio had the highest mortality.
Within each quartile of fatness indicator, mortality was reduced with increasing fitness. However, there were fewer people in the high fitness category among the highest quartile of fatness indicators [ 12 ].
Similar results are observed for older people who live in long-term residential care settings. Similar results were obtained in a meta-analysis of 19, older people in Europe, Australia, Japan, Taiwan and China [ 14 ]. Obesity does not only constitute an increased risk for elevated intraocular pressure, [ 3 ] it also constitutes an important risk for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, osteoarthritis, and sleep apnea syndrome [ 4 ].
Assessment of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dental age
Some eye diseases like cataract [ 56 ], glaucoma [ 7 ], diabetic retinopathy [ 8 ], and age-related macular degeneration [ 910 ], were reported to have potential relation to obesity. Some epidemiological studies have observed an association between obesity and IOP in adults and children [ 2 - 3712 - 13 ] and a recent review concluded that there is an association between higher body mass index and higher IOP in adults and children.
Elevated intraocular pressure IOP is a major risk factor to the development and progression of glaucoma because it results in glaucomatous optic nerve damage which has a detrimental effect on vision [ 14 - 16 ] and obesity has been found to play a role in glaucoma progression through elevated IOP.
Intraocular pressure has been found to be associated with systemic blood pressure levels in various population based studies [ 18 - 22 ]. In the study of Klein et al. There are very scanty reported studies on the relationship between body mass index, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and age, in black population, therefore the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between body mass index, IOP, blood pressure, and age, in a Nigerian population.
Methodology Seven hundred and eighty seven healthy Subjects selected from a screening exercise, comprising males and females aged between mean age of During the screening exercise, ocular and medical history was obtained and Subjects with history of ocular or systemic hypertension or other ocular and medical conditions were excluded from the study.
The research study received prior approval from the Research Ethics committee of the University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria and was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of All participants signed informed consent form after they received a detailed explanation of the study.
IOP of each Subject was determined by the mean value of three successive readings for the right and the left eyes with the Kowa HAhand-held applanation tonometer made in Japan, model No-MK2 between 9 and 11 a. Intraocular pressure was measured based on the principle of applanation. The cornea was superficially anesthetized with one drop of 0.
The patient was instructed to look straight ahead and keep his eyes wide open. With the contact prism almost touching the cornea, the examiner looked into the microscope, and slowly advanced the contact prism toward the cornea. When the prism just touched the cornea and was properly centered the semicircles centered horizontally and vertically. The examiner slowly rotated the pressure- recording dial and this increased the pressure of the prism against the cornea, gradually flattening a larger area.
The examiner continued turning the dial until the inner side of the top semicircles is aligned with the inner side of the bottom semicircles.
The pressure reading was recorded at this point. Corneal thickness was not determined in the Subjects due to non-availability of a noncontact pachymeter. Measurement was done as the cuff of the sphygmomanometer was wrapped around the upper arm. The cuff was inflated until the pulse disappeared.