What is a Hot Spot? | Volcano World | Oregon State University
Attached to the tectonic plate below, the volcano moves and is eventually Most scientists think that 40 to 50 hot spots exist around the world. Hot spots are places within the mantle where rocks melt to generate magma. The presence of a hot spot is inferred by anomalous volcanism (i.e. not at a plate. Question: Explain the relationship between hotspots and volcanism. Plate Tectonics: Plate tectonics is the cause of some of the most interesting moments in our.
This causes decompressional melting of the hot mantle material, i. It is thought that the massive flood basalt provinces on earth are produced when large mantle plumes reach the lithosphere.
Outline the formation of hotspots and explain their relationship to plate movement. | MyTutor
Note the bulbous plume heads, the narrow plume tails, and the flattened plume heads as they impinge on the outer sphere representing the base of the lithosphere. Illustration how the progressively older islands formed above the stationary mantle plume Courtesy of the USGS. Mantle plumes appear to be largely unaffected by plate motions. While a plume that feeds hot spot volcanoes remains stationary relative to the mantle, the plate above it usually moves.
The result is that a chain of progressively older volcanoes are created on the overlying plate. The best examples of such "hot spot tracks" are found in the Pacific Ocean.
- Plate tectonics affected by mantle hot spots
- How are hot spots related to plate tectonics?
- Outline the formation of hotspots and explain their relationship to plate movement.
The Pacific plate contains several linear belts of extinct submarine volcanoes, called seamounts. The formation of at least some of these intraplate seamount chains can be attributed to volcanism above a mantle hotspot to form a linear, age-progressive hotspot track.
Molten lava was thrown over around 1. Steve Cande and Dave Stegman, who led the study for Scripps Institution of Oceanography, tracked movements of continental plates throughout Earth's history. Their research suggests that the Indian subcontinent tectonic plate sat over a powerful mantle plume which began around 70 million years ago, around what is now the Reunion Islands. This rising mass of hot rock hit the Earth's crust and spread out. The pushing force of the mantle plume sent the Indian plate hurtling towards what is now Asia.
The Reunion mantle plume is also thought to be responsible for the mass volcanism at the Deccan Plateau.
Hotspots driving tectonic plate movement
Cande and Stegman also think that the Reunion mantle plume caused the African tectonic plate to slow down for around 5 million years. After the plume subsided, the Indian tectonic plate slowed to a more normal geological movement of around a few centimetres each year, whereas the African plate sped up.
The movement of these two plates in sync, always countering each other, provides strong evidence that a powerful mantle plume was responsible for their motion.
The area around Reunion Islands is still a hotspot for volcanic activity, even though the plume has now spluttered out. Could mantle plumes be responsible for more of our present mountain ranges, volcanoes and continents? Whilst not all scientists agree that mantle plumes are responsible for the movement of whole continents, the latest research should shed new light on the way we think about the Earth's geological features.