What is the relationship between income, education, and religious affiliation? | Yahoo Answers
Nov 4, These groups are among the top of a list of 30 U.S. religious groups ranked Given the strong correlation between educational attainment and. Oct 14, While there is a strong and proven correlation between education and income, it's harder to know whether there also is a link between religion. Oct 11, While there is a strong and proven correlation between education and income, it's harder to know whether there also is a link between religion.
Based upon the history of other Christian denominations, Niebuhr theorized that such sects would evolve into mainstream denominations as their members became upwardly mobile, gaining more education, more income and more prestigious occupations.
Yet empirical research conducted since the s has not found much change in social class differences across denominations in the United States. Niebuhr's theory predicted generational change—that the denominations would evolve as the original members' children and grandchildren gained more education, better jobs and more income. Previous studies looked at change over time—but the generational effect was masked by the large size of the Baby Boom generation as well as by the influence of age on religious attitudes.
Those in their 70s often have a different perspective on religion than those in their 20s, Schwadel said. Using a technique developed by other sociologists to measure changes over generations, Schwadel separated the responses of more than 31, white participants in the General Social Survey from to into five-year birth cohorts from to He examined the correlations by cohort between religious affiliation and three measures of social class: He said he limited his study to white respondents because the relationship between religious affiliation and social class may vary by race.
Schwadel is among the first to apply the birth cohort approach to the sociological study of religion.
He examined those identified as evangelical Protestant, liberal Protestant Presbyterian, Episcopal and United Church of Christmoderate Protestant, Pentecostal, nondenominational Protestant, Jewish, Catholic, other religions such as Mormon, Hindu and Muslim and the unaffiliated. On the aggregate, evangelical Protestants continue to have lower education, income and occupational prestige levels than those in most other religious affiliations, he found.
Yet the differences in occupation and income narrow considerably among younger generations of Protestants. Schwadel said he found the result to be a combination of younger evangelical Protestants gaining social class status while the other affiliations lost status.
And college-educated mainline Protestants are less likely than mainline Protestants who have less formal education to say they believe in God with absolute certainty.
Income and religious affiliation in the US – Episcopal Cafe
Most highly educated are least religious While college-educated Christians are about as observant — and sometimes more observant —than Christians with less education, the data show that among the religiously unaffiliated i.
As with the religiously unaffiliated, highly educated Jews tend to be less religious than Jews with fewer years of schooling. However, even when the analysis is restricted to the non-Orthodox, Jews with college degrees are less likely to say religion is very important to them or that they believe in God with absolute certainty compared with Jews with lower levels of educational attainment.
Religion and education among Muslims There is no clear pattern when it comes to the relationship between religion and education for U. Roughly half of Muslims in both of these educational groups attend services at least once a week, while two-thirds pray some or all of the five salah Islamic prayers each day. Hindus, Buddhists and other, smaller religious groups are studied in Pew Research Center surveys, including the Religious Landscape Studythey are not analyzed in this report, for a variety of methodological reasons.
Interviews for the Landscape Study were conducted in English and Spanish, effectively excluding members of these religious traditions who speak only Asian languages. Since a considerable share of U.
Buddhists are not Asian Americans, the Asian Americans study is not able to provide information on the full population of U. Hindus are not included in this analysis of religion and education because the vast majority of Hindus in the U. Hindus with different levels of education. The idea that religion declines as average levels of education increase in societies is one of the key components of secularization theory. For one example of a scholar questioning this theory, however, see Schwadel, Philip.
Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Respondents are assigned a score of 1 on each of the four measures on which they exhibit a high level of religious observance, a score of 0 on each of the measures on which they exhibit a medium level of religious observance, and a score of -1 on each measure on which they exhibit a low level of religious observance. Respondents are also assigned a medium score on any questions they declined to answer. When prompted by a survey question to report how often they attend religious services, respondents who say they attend every week may be indicating that they see themselves as the kind of people who regularly go to services, rather than that they never miss a week of church.
The most and least educated U.S. religious groups
For a discussion of differences between self-reported attendance and actual attendance rates, see Brenner, Philip S. Overreporting of Church Attendance in the U. Though this body of research suggests that attendance measures from surveys may not necessarily be the best gauge of the share of people who attend services in any given week, knowing whether respondents think of themselves as regular churchgoers is nevertheless very important because this measure of religious commitment often is correlated with other religious beliefs and practices, as well as with social and political attitudes.
In addition to the overreporting of church attendance that arises from asking respondents directly how often they attend religious services, readers should bear in mind that telephone opinion surveys can produce overestimates of religious attendance due to high rates of nonresponse. Jews for more information. Jews did not ask respondents about self-reported frequency of prayer. Therefore, the religiosity index, which uses frequency of prayer as one of the four measures in the index, cannot be created for U.
Jews using this survey.