80 Years War Summary - The Dutch Revolt
Frederik Muller Historical Prints > The Dutch Revolt (). De troon van de The battle for religious freedom is inseparable from the revolt. The reform. The Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands led to the collapse of Spain as a reacted to it in that they would not be drawn into religious or political four separate aims and there was no obvious link between them all. A further blow for the resistance movement came in February , when Brederode died. Historiography of the Dutch Revolt has traditionally emphasised that it was painful have uncovered the strong ties between religion, politics and memory. .. child of Philip IV of Spain's first marriage to Elisabeth of France.
This, too, has been an understudied topic in historical research due to the influential assumption that the Southern Netherlands were only a plaything of foreign powers and did not develop a sense of national awareness that needed a national history to prop it up.
But political references to the conflict increasingly resembled the outspoken memory practices in the Dutch Republic. On the basis of three cases, this article asks how and why this shift occurred.
The first case examines the conflicting political usage of war memories by Habsburg government authorities and Count Henry van den Bergh during the conspiracy of nobles against the regime in The sources mostly consist of propagandistic literature published by and on behalf of key political figures during the three crises. I have measured these sources against anonymous pamphlet literature, correspondence, and handwritten chronicles. Yet both states had serious political problems too. The Republic remained a confederation of independent states barely held together by the cultivation of a common enemy.
And in the Southern Netherlands, support for the Habsburgs was not self-evident. The reign of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella — proved very successful compared to the early stages of the Revolt in the late sixteenth century. Government anxiety was not limited to the Habsburg Netherlands. On December 21, the Spanish inquisitor-general Cardinal Antonio Zapata y Cisneros mentioned in a meeting of the Spanish Council of State the power vacuum of following the death of Governor General Luis de Requesens, as a reminder of the revolutionary potential of a discontent population.
Appointed maestro de campo general in the Army of Flanders inas a temporary replacement for Ambrogio Spinola, senior government officials held Van den Bergh responsible for the loss of Den Bosch in and accused him of treachery. Himself dissatisfied with the Habsburg administration in the South, he defected to the Dutch enemy. They agreed that Frederick Henry would substitute his already existing plans to march on Antwerp for a campaign along the Meuse River.
Van den Bergh, who was then stadholder of Upper Guelders, would feign ignorance of these plans. In the meantime, enemies of the Habsburgs as well as domestic political dissidents such as Van den Bergh used memories of the sixteenth-century Revolt to incite popular opposition against the regime in the Habsburg Netherlands. Inthe States General hoped that Southern elites would do so again. His assumption that people would understand references to the Revolt is not surprising.
Hence, an ideological movement began to form in midth century. Calvinism a Dutch iteration of protestantism became the preferred belief of those territories, and they soon got restless at the lack of political and religious reforms that would make their leaders reflect their faith.
The Political Rediscovery of the Dutch Revolt in the Seventeenth-Century Habsburg Netherlands
Rebellions soon started to spread shyly through Dutch territory. They refused to recognize the Governess that Spain had chosen for them, the somewhat tolerant Margaret of Parma. Even though none of those revolts were victorious, Spain decided to name a new governor, the harsher Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, the 3d Duke of Alba. He ordered the execution of about 3, rebels and made everyone from both sides a little bit more radical than before. William the Silent He had a powerful enemy in a landowner called William the Silent.
He refused to swear by the Duke's oath of allegiance -- a common imposition among many nobles back then. What was more outrageous, he refused to side with anyone at all.
He was neither a rebel nor a monarch hence the apt nickname of The Silentso he he could not be trusted, but he ended up becoming one of the leaders of the Dutch Revolt anyway. The Duke decided to force some ideology out of him and arrested his son, who was studying in Leuven, Belgium. William the Silent fled the country and swore revenge against the Spanish territories. These territories each retained their customary laws and traditions, their so-called ancient liberties.
In many respects this disunity of the provinces of the Low Countries ensured that particularist agendas would stand in the way of attempts by the rulers to create a centralized administration and unified country. Whereas the Burgundian dukes did not move too quickly in the direction of expansion and centralization, their Habsburg successors certainly did.
Probably the most important move toward centralization prior to the revolt was taken by Emperor Charles V ruled — when he succeeded in having his "seventeen provinces" of the Netherlands united as a single entity by agreement of the States-General parliament to his Pragmatic Sanction in The Pragmatic Sanction outlined the way the succession would be regulated and provided that the seventeen provinces must always have the same ruler.
It is not clear, however, if this meant that their liberties would be compromised. The great nobles of the Low Countries and delegates to the States-General disapproved of his reliance on officials sent from Spain. Soon the nobles, including William of Orange —Lamoraal, count of Egmont —and the count of Hoorne, Filips van Montmorency —became disenchanted with Philip's increasingly absolutist-tilting government in Brussels, which was led by the unpopular Antoine Perrenot —the future Cardinal Granvelle.
Memory of the Netherlands
The nobles' main argument was a constitutional one. They thought that government should be administered jointly by the prince usually through his officialsthe nobility, and the States-General.
Thus the nobility had an important role to play in government. As Philip's chief official in the Netherlands and the champion of royal prerogative, Perrenot received the brunt of the nobility's ire. But rather than seek any kind of compromise, Philip's government insisted that the nobles swear an oath of allegiance to the king in which they would essentially be renouncing their traditional liberties. While many of the nobles accepted the change with considerable grumblingWilliam of Orange and a few others refused.
These constitutional issues were being raised at a time of increasing religious tensions, due mostly to the ecclesiastical reforms— Philip II proposed to institute new bishoprics in the Low Countries—and also to an increase in the prosecution of "heretics.
But it was the Habsburg obsession with rooting out heresy that is often associated with the uprising that occurred in Late in Philip's Council of State directed Inquisition officials to enforce anti-heresy laws. For the nobility, this was one more affront to their authority.
The great nobles considered resisting the government's religious policies, but it was the lower nobility that took action. The lower nobles, led mostly by Protestants or those with Protestant leanings, came together at Culemborch to form the Compromise of the Nobility, with the express intention of forcing Philip's regent and half-sisterMargaret of Parma —to change the heresy law.
By April as many as four hundred lesser nobles, all supporters of the Compromise, assembled at Brussels to present their petition to Margaret. One minister referred to these nobles not as petitioners, but as les gueux, 'the Beggars', a name that became a badge of honor. The Beggars promised violence if Margaret failed to take action against the heresy laws. Although she issued a decree of "moderation," the damage had been done; Calvinists had already begun flouting the laws, and preaching in the Netherlands had reached a fever pitch by late spring The nobles soon lost control as Calvinist preachers urged their listeners to destroy the numerous religious images found in the churches of the Low Countries.
This iconoclasm of the summer of was widespread, hitting Antwerp on 20 August, and Ghent, AmsterdamLeiden, and Utrecht a few days later. A terrified Margaret acquiesced to the repeated demands of the Beggars and agreed to an "Accord" permitting Protestant worship in the parts of the Low Countries where it was already being practiced. Unfortunately the Compromise of the Nobility soon collapsed, leaving no one really in control.
The iconoclasm continued, and Margaret had no choice but to raise an army to bring order to the provinces. While Margaret was hard at work bringing the towns of the provinces to heel, Philip II weighed his options. By November he had decided to send an army to the Netherlands. But the Beggars had been raising troops in opposition to the government, so Margaret had to take action. This split the nobility, many of whom sided with the government. Margaret's troops had been successfully besieging Calvinist strongholds and on 13 March defeated the rebel troops at the Battle of Oosterweel.
By May the Netherlands were back under the control of the regent. The next month Philip sent his Spanish army, under the leadership of the duke of Alba, to the Netherlands.
Of the almost nine thousand people found guilty of participating in the troubles of —, including some well-known nobles, at least one thousand were executed, including Counts Egmont and Hoorne. Only the nobles who remained loyal to Philip survived unscathed. William of Orange emerged as the de facto leader of the opposition.
Dutch Revolt - Wikipedia
His attempt to invade the Netherlands from his ancestral home in Germany with a force of some 30, men in October was no match for the Spanish forces. William's brother, Count Louis of Nassau —sent ships out to get aid from exiled Calvinist communities in Englandbut it was too late and Louis's "Sea Beggars" Watergeuzen eventually turned to privateering.
At the time William had no choice but to retreat. He spent the next year fighting for the Huguenots in France. Alba set about instituting Philip's plans and policies for the Netherlands, including the ecclesiastical reforms. William of Orange and his supporters had been continuing to plan for an eventual invasion, but, perhaps because of the harshness of Alba's regime, he found few willing to rise up in the Netherlands.
Help had to come from the outside.