[Population and development in Africa: what future?]. [Article in French]. Sala- diakanda M. PIP: This work uses available data to assess the relationship between. At that point, African population growth would be able to re-fill an empty show substantial strengthening of contraceptive use among married women. Join our community of development professionals and humanitarians. Economic reforms to stabilize, restructure and transform African economies to The interrelationship between population and sustainable development, with.
ECA provided technical assistance to regional economic communities and IGOs on ways and means of furthering economic co-operation and integration and ensuring food security. In this regard, a technical cooperation programme on inter-island and coastal shipping, industry, environment and marine affairs was drawn up for the Indian Ocean Commission IOC. Technical assistance was also provided to African countries to enhance monetary and financial integration in Africa. Support to river basin development schemes focused on the Niger Basin Authority NBA and was assisted in its efforts to map out an action plan to revitalize its activities and strengthen the organization.
Assistance was also provided to sector specific subregional groups in the promotion of cooperation in specific areas of needs. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the rationale for cooperation which, among other benefits, were the realiza-tion of economies of scale and optimum utiliza-tion of electricity resources in the area. In this regard, four projects dealing with electricity interconnection were identified for implementa-tion during Furthermore, consider-ing that countries of the CEPGL are land-locked some assistance was provided in the area of transport.
African Governments have long recognized the need for a regional African institution which would specialize in regional monetary and finan-cial issues. Its primary responsibility would be to help African countries to formulate a general framework or guidelines for promoting monetary and financial integration. It was against this background that a report outlining progress towards the establishment of an African mone-tary fund was presented to the fifth session of the Conference of African Ministers of Finance, held in February The report detailed the progress achieved so far, among which was the political approval given by member States.
It also underscored the need for a detail study on the technical aspects of the setting up of the Fund. Another activity in the field of monetary cooperation related to the harmonization of monetary and financial policies at the subre-gional level.
A study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of subregional financial institutions in the mobilization of resources for development. The need to revitalize measures to respond to these weaknesses is thus widely felt. This is particularly important in light of the adoption of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multi-lateral Trade Negotiations, an important development at the global level, which from current analysis has the potential to affect the prospects for Africa's recovery and growth.
These new realities of intense global competi-tiveness require efficient, ample and flexible capacity that can anticipate and adjust to global market changes. In this regard, a study was undertaken by ECA to analyze the anticipated impact of the Uruguay Round Agreements on selected high priority sectors, with a view to making proposals on policy measures for helping African countries benefit from the Uruguay agreements. This study recommended measures to minimize the adverse effects and maximize the positive effects of the imple-mentation of the agreements, in the short- medium- and long-term horizon.
The conclusions and recommendations from the impact analysis was the rallying point for discussion by the International Conference on the Uruguay Round convened in Tunis in The conference, on the basis of the analysis, adopted the "Framework for action for technical assistance to African countries within the framework of the implementation of the Uruguay Round Agreements". The Framework among the many proposals to respond to the post-Uruguay Round challenges, those requiring immediate attention include providing the tech-nical assistance on a range of issues.
Notably priority technical assistance that will be required to assist individual African countries as they set out to: The study entitled "Cooperation in the development of industrial and agricultural minerals", identified structural weaknesses inherent to the industry and iden-tified appropriate areas for cooperation. This study was presented at a SADC workshop which adopted most of its recommendations which are expected to be used in the formu-lation of the SADC protocol for the mining sector.
Fundamental requirements for effective intra-African trade include the availability of trade information, including supply and demand, elimination of obstacles to trade, promotion of those factors such as a conducive environment that facilitate trade and the mobilization of trade operators.
The activities undertaken by the Commis-sion to strengthen intra-African trade included, among others, the following: One important outcome of the workshop was the establishment of an African Gemstone Development Association, which held its inaugural meeting in Nairobi, in October The Association aims at fostering collec-tive interest for gemstone dealers as well as the coordination and harmonization of activities related to gemstones through the establishment of a gemstone exchange bureau in the subregion and the holding of subregional gemstone fairs; b In the West African subregion, the effects of the devaluation of the CFA franc on the integration process, in particular on trade relations and promotion, were analyzed; c Given the importance of agriculture for countries of the Great Lakes subregion com-posed mainly of countries of KBO, a study was undertaken on the harmonization of agricultural policies in KBO countries mainly in forestry, rural development and marketing of agricultural pro-ducts.
A study on edible oil was also under-taken. According to the study, the production of edible oils could be increased if the diffi-culties related to the production, harvest, storage and technologies were removed.
As a first step, farmers must be encouraged to develop new palm oil tree plantations as well as develop groundnut and soya plantations; d Another area that lends itself to intra-African trade is the minerals sector.
The poten-tialities of trade in minerals in the Kagera basin were also assessed. The study suggested the establishment of a data bank on exploration activities in the basin; e Some activities addressed the issues of South-South cooperation both among subregions and with other countries of the south. In this context, a study on trade liberalization of domestically produced goods in the ECOWAS and COMESA subregions was undertaken with the objective of seeking ways and means of enhancing the expansion of intra-subregional trade in locally produced goods.
Another study dealt with trade issues, in particular the prospects and problems of expanding South-South trade cooperation. Many of the activities were implemented in association with subregional organizations and financial institutions. The publications prepared by the Commission in this area included "Harmonization of monetary and financial policies at the subregional level" and "External trade financing techniques".
However, its full potential in Africa is yet to be realized, despite the positive growth experienced over the years. The need to explore the contribution of tourism to Africa's development, therefore, constituted the main thrust of ECA's intervention and support during the biennium Thus, greater emphasis was placed on mobilization of tourism resources for overall development.
In this regard, ECA's major activity was a report which summarized various studies carried out to analyze the development of tourism in Africa with a view to making suggestions for a more effective contribution to the African integration process and the overall development of the region. The report made recom-mendations for the development of tourism at the subregional and regional levels which included measures for improvement in the airline industry, better hotel accommodation and faci-lities, increase participation of local entre-preneurs in the tourist sector, organization of Africa's cultural heritage and development of human resources.
The study also recommended the need for the establishment of mechanism for promoting tourism cooperation and integration. There is an equally disturbing decline in capacity of an increasing number of Africa's population to access to food and other basic needs, includ-ing potable water and shelter.
Poverty alleviation approaches, in particular those traditional interventions such as agrarian reforms, providing subsidized goods and ser-vices and making available productive resources have already been amply documented. Far less emphasis had been given to crucial cross-sectoral linkages and synergies among food and agriculture, population, environment and human settlements. The first meeting of the Con-ference of African Ministers responsible for Sustainable Development and the Environment was convened in March under the theme "Facing the challenges of sustainable develop-ment and environment in Africa".
The Con-ference considered strategies and programmes based on the inter-relationships between agri-culture especially food supply, rural develop-ment and water resources, population, the environment and human settlements within the framework of poverty alleviation. To this end, measures and actions to ensure sustainable production, rational exploitation and use of conventional and non-conventional food, fishery, forestry and livestock resources and to improve delivery systems were recommended.
Several reports highlighting various aspects of food security and its effect on poverty alle-viation were prepared and presented to the first meeting of the Conference of African Ministers responsible for Sustainable Development and Environment.
In addition, a number of policy papers based on research on selected issues affecting food security were prepared. These papers examined issues such as alternative strategy for increased self-reliance and improved competitiveness in world market to enable Africa achieve sustain-able food security. ECA continued to sensitize decision makers by actively participating in meetings where the opportunity to provide technical advice on issues pertaining to food security was available.
It participated, for example, in: Meetings of the subregional IGOs were convened to review the issues of developing complementarities between bordering States to enhance their individual and collective capacity in improving the food security situations, as well as the need for maintaining the natural resources base.
As inputs to these subregional reviews, ECA undertook for the Central, West, East and Southern Africa subregions in-depth studies on border food trade. These studies identified bottlenecks as well as remedial measures for ensuring the effective contribution of marketing and intra-subregional trade to improving the food security situation and, thereby, to alleviating poverty.
Recom-mendations on harmonizing food production and pricing policies, the establishment of subregional information systems on food markets, the development of appropriate credit schemes for the private sector and the improvement of marketing infrastructures were endorsed by these meetings.
Other studies focused on the identification of measures for developing and maintaining the natural resources base for ensuring sustained agricultural development, the rational exploitation of natural resources for producing non-conventional foods and for other uses such as shelter and foreign exchange earnings, and on policies for improving micro watershed management and soil conservation for arid and semi-arid areas for sustained development for the North Africa subregion.
Other studies undertaken in this area included: It was against this background that ECA's population activities gave specific attention to the situational analysis of critical population-related issues such as family planning, female migration, population age structure on resource utilization, mortality, population and environment, as well as the insti-tutional arrangements for the formulation and implementation of programme.
Among the various studies carried out to provide insights into population issues and their dynamics on sustainable development were the following: The study focused on family planning programmes targeting, in the context of reducing fertility and improving reproductive health care. The findings from the study high-lighted the following as among the factors to consider in family planning: Migration issues have featured prominently in ECA's population work.
A new and emerging trend in migration in Africa relates to the increasing participation of female in migration. To better understand the phenomena, ECA undertook a study on "Patterns, causes and consequences for development planning of female migration in selected African countries".
The study, based on a regional analysis and a case study of Lesotho, Namibia and Zimbabwe, revealed that the reasons for migration range from economic employment seeking or com-mercially motivatedmarital and political, as a result of decline in agriculture, coupled with the rising levels of educated females and the economic crisis. The consequences of long-term female migration include destabilization of families, etc.
A study on "The implications of population age structure on resource utilization and social security in relation to poverty alleviation" assessed the availability of social security schemes and the implications of population age structure and resources. The study observed that existing social security benefits are limited and, for the most part, only cover such benefits as maternal and child allowances and meagre pension benefits hardly enough to sustain basic lifestyles and result in aging population having to depend on the younger population for survival, the net effect of which is a vicious circle of poverty.
The study provided evidence to indicate the contributory role of environmental factors such as rural population pressure, drought, famine and desertification, insect infestation and diseases, soil erosion, natural disasters, migration and refugees in the continent.
Conclusions drawn from the study underscored the need for inte-grated population and environmental policies and suggested policies pertaining to decentrali-zation, popular participation and transparency to tackle some of the adverse consequences aris-ing from the interrelationships among environ-ment, migration and urbanization.
The management of effective population programmes must be anchored to institutional arrangements capable of facilitating the process of integrating population factors in development plans, as well as providing a structured environ-ment for a member State to manage its national population programme.
Overview of Economic and Social Development in Africa
In this respect, an evaluation of institutional arrangements for the formulation and implementation of national population programmes in Africa was under-taken. The analysis of the information revealed that the institutional structures fall into three broad groups: Furthermore, in order to foster effective integration, the institutions established should be based on clear criteria, specified terms of reference per component of the structure as well as the mode and mechanism of collabora-tion between the various components.
The Strategies are based on the orientation that environmental challenges must be approached from a broader perspective - one that embraces broader development concerns. The Strategies fully recognized the linkages between environ-ment and sustainable development.
Several activities were undertaken to strengthen national, subregional and regional capacities for the implementation of Agenda For example, technical support was provided to IGADD in the re-orientation and revitalization of its activities on environment-related issues.
Technical support was also provided to the African Centre of Meteorological Applications for Development ACMAD to strengthen its operations and work programme, including mobilization of required resources. Supporting measures to combat desertifica-tion, consistent with commitments made in rele-vant conventions was a major priority for the African region.
This assistance resulted in the adoption by African countries of a common orientation and approach to the negotiations, one in which Africa underscored the point that the problem of drought and desertification in the region was not just a technical issue; rather that desertification was a developmental problem which must be addressed from a multi-dimensional perspective.
This required, for example, increased emphasis on the eradication of poverty and the development of alternative patterns of livelihood for poor communities. Most African countries lack an integrated approach to human settlements planning within the framework of overall socio-economic development. The problems are exacerbated by high population growth, rural-urban migration and low population density in rural communities. ECA provided support to member States in tackling the challenges of human settlements, notably through providing policy orientation and proposing strategies as well as in the mobiliza-tion of resources.
Special attention was paid to the need to adopt integrated systems of planning, which took adequate account of rural and urban settlements needs.
[Population and development in Africa: what future?].
African countries' efforts to implement the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year was actively supported by ECA through country reviews and provision of guidelines for assisting countries to formulate policies to enhance the provision of shelter. The guidelines emphasized strategic planning and the need for concerted action by the public and private sectors in order to provide adequate shelter for all by the year This should be backed by leadership that is fully committed to creating an enabling environment within which the broad participation of its citizens in the development process can take place.
Thus, the Commission's activities in the area of development administration and management were to promote good governance as part of an effort towards fostering policies favourable to the development of the private sector, enhanc-ing the efficiency of the public service, increasing awareness of the need for the judicious use of scarce resources as well as the need for accountability and increasing also awareness of the pressing need for the diffusion and dispersal of political and administrative powers through the mechanism of decentraliza-tion.
The secretariat prepared a report on "Private sector development and entrepreneur-ship through the creation of an enabling environment" which was reviewed by the Conference of African Ministers responsible for Human Development in The Conference made policy recommendations relating to the enhancement of productive activities and income-generating opportunities.
The secretariat undertook a number of studies aimed at strengthening the private sector in Africa. These included "Improvements in legal and regulatory constraints to private sector development", "Developing and streng-thening credit and capital markets for private sector development", "Fiscal policies for promoting indigenous private sector investment" and "The informal economy in African eco-nomies: Implications for appropriate fiscal policies".
The key policy message from these studies was that the development and streng-thening of the private sector should be seen in the context of strategic measures taken by countries to speed up social and economic recovery and should therefore adopt policies aimed at removing factors that impinge on the development and contribution of the private sector.
Training remained a prominent feature of technical assistance in development administra-tion and management and took the form of national workshops conducted for member States. Three such workshops were held for Zambia on integrated public financial manage-ment, delivery and assessment of training programmes and on improving public financial management capacity and accountability.
One other workshop was held for Ethiopian auditors on strengthening the capacity for public financial management and accountability, while a similar workshop was held for Ethiopian regional finance officers. Yet another workshop of the same genre was also held for Botswana. ECA's activities also aimed at reinforcing the need for popular participation of civil society in the socio-economic development of their communities. This was done through a field project on "Popular participation for sustainable development".
The activities of this project were on catalyzing the participation of the masses of civil society, in particular NGOs in the development process. In this respect, work-shops and other fora were organized to facilitate the interface between governments and mass organizations. These fora promoted, among other things: It is for this reason that African Governments, households, NGOs, civic organizations and other stakeholders should commit themselves to the development of human resources as well as pro-viding their social needs.
ECA's programme of assistance placed emphasis on enhancing and strengthening the human and social dimension of development through the promotion of human- and social-centred development policies and strategies consistent with human resource and social issues and concerns in the African region.
In this regard, activities carried out during focused on providing assistance to member States in the areas of: It initiated action towards the formulation of an African position on human and social development, resulting in the adoption by African Governments of an African Common Position on Human and Social Development in Africa, which made substantive contributions to the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the Summit. The African Common Position mapped out an actionable agenda for human and social development which included actions at the national level, such as policy shifts and increased resource allocation for programmes of poverty alleviation, creating productive employment and income, social integration, peace and political stability and the promotion and consolidation of popular parti-cipation in development in the region.
It also delineated the various complementary actions needed to be taken by Africa's development partners to support the region's efforts at achieving human-centred development.
The responsibility for monitoring human development conditions in the region and follow-up on the implementation of the decisions of the Conference of African Ministers responsible for Human Development was entrusted to ECA.
The Human Development in Africa Report series, a biennial publication of ECA which was launched inwill be the main mechanism for monitoring progress on human development in Africa. The maiden issue of the series opened with a discussion on the consensus on human development, the concept and measure-ment of human development and the state of human development in Africa. It focused on the themes of "goals for the child", "health for all" and "basic education for all".
Through policy workshops, ECA created avenues to enhance dialogue and interface between government policy makers and planners on the one hand, and people's organizations on the other, on issues related to popular participation in development.
In this connection, national workshops were organized in the following member countries: Other national training workshops aimed at strengthening the capacity of popular development organizations and NGOs to make contributions to and influence public policy effectively were held in the Gambia and Uganda.
The objectives of the forum were to analyze the role of NGOs in promoting peaceful conflict resolu-tion; identifying opportunities and constraints in the transition from relief to development and scaling up NGOs' long-term sustainable develop-ment efforts; and identifying modalities and strategies for promoting the development of strong, viable and active civil societies; as well as developing NGO concerns, positions and per-spectives which were presented to the World Summit for Social Development.
The Role of NGOs". In parti-cular, the Addis Ababa Declaration adopted recommendations on specific themes such as the crisis and opportunity for peace: The objective of the Plan is to address the deficiencies in the statistical capacities of African countries, ranging from poor management of statistical offices and inadequate funding to lack of timeliness in outputs delivery as well as poor quality of data produced and poor systems for dissemination.
These activities were carried out under two areas of emphasis: As an advocate for Africa's statistics and information development, the secretariat uses the annual observance of the African Statistics Day and the African Development Information Day to stimulate public awareness on the important role which statistics and information play in all aspects of socio-economic develop-ment.
The theme of the observance was "Strengthening information systems for informa-tion exchange in Africa". ECA used the occa-sion to call on member States as well as African regional and subregional institutions and donor agencies to support development information activities and adopt a more dynamic approach to information sharing. These situations were reviewed through the following research activities: In all these studies, the need to give special attention to the human resources capacity for the generation and processing of statistical data and information was underscored.
So also was the need to develop the institutional and infra-structural capacity. Concerning the human capacity, training and other staff development opportunities were suggested as possible options for creating the critical mass required to meet the statistical needs of the region. The need for providing technical assistance, espe-cially by the international community was also highlighted as necessary support for capacity building in this area. African countries should show greater commitment by investing more in statistical and information needs of the region.
The research activities also stressed the need to coordinate activities and resources for greater effectiveness. In fostering the establishment of the African Economic Community, processing of trade data must be given significant importance and atten-tion.
Another reason for developing trade statistics is the obvious decline in African countries capacity to report on their trade data. This lack of capacity is attributed to many factors, among which are the non-functioning of institutions responsible for trade statistics and the brain drain of staff. To take remedial action, ECA undertook a study to evaluate the problems faced by African countries in the collection, processing and dissemination of trade statistics.
The survey results showed that the responsibi-lity for the collection, processing and dis-semination was spread among customs adminis-tration office and central statistics office respectively. In a handful of countries, previous declines have stalled altogether and are reversing.
Beyond unreliable supplies of contraceptives in many countries the greater obstacles to lower fertility are often male opposition to contraception, religious teachings, social norms, or misinformation about contraceptive options and their side-effects.
These dynamics create the opposite of a virtuous circle. Rapid population growth helps overstrain educational systems and local economies and can be a challenge to any government. Many areas of Australia and England, both fast-growing countries, are contending with overcrowded schoolscongested highways and stratospheric housing costs.
The reality is that as the size of any populace expands, governments must construct infrastructure apace. Failure to do so results in per capita declines in living standards. In already economically strained nations, physical goods such as roads, bridges, water supplies, sewers and electricity systems are crucial, but scaling-up educational, public health and security systems are also required. Unemployment, instability and entrenched poverty follow suit. Uneducated girls and women are less likely to overcome social barriers to contraceptive use, such as domineering paternalistic cultures or religious prohibition.
Fertility remains high and human suffering builds steam. Overpopulation, overconsumption — in pictures Read more A few heroic efforts, such as Family Planningare attempting to stimulate family planning programmes across the continent, and there are some signs of success.