The relationship between the states and the federal government (article) | Khan Academy
States, sovereign states, nations, and countries have a lot in common—but they' re not The Difference Between a Country, State, and Nation. In international law, a sovereign state (or sovereign country) is a nonphysical juridical entity that 3 Relationship between state and government; 4 State extinction; 5 Ontological status of the state. The state as "quasi-abstract"; The state. Citizenship: relationship between citizens and state. Leiden Various countries in Asia are in the process of becoming a constitutional state democracy.
Nation denotes a group of people who are believed or deemed be to sharing common customs, religion, language, origins, ancestry or history. However, the adjectives national and international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law.
State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory and population.
Sovereign states are legal persons. Recognition[ edit ] State recognition signifies the decision of a sovereign state to treat another entity as also being a sovereign state.
It does not necessarily signify a desire to establish or maintain diplomatic relations. There is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations on the criteria for statehood.
In actual practice, the criteria are mainly political, not legal. Green cited the recognition of the unborn Polish and Czechoslovak states in World War I and explained that "since recognition of statehood is a matter of discretion, it is open to any existing State to accept as a state any entity it wishes, regardless of the existence of territory or of an established government.
This theory of recognition was developed in the 19th century. Under it, a state was sovereign if another sovereign state recognised it as such. Because of this, new states could not immediately become part of the international community or be bound by international law, and recognised nations did not have to respect international law in their dealings with them.
Hersch Lauterpacht, one of the theory's main proponents, suggested that it is a state's duty to grant recognition as a possible solution. However, a state may use any criteria when judging if they should give recognition and they have no obligation to use such criteria.
Citizenship: relationship between citizens and state - Leiden University
Many states may only recognise another state if it is to their advantage. Oppenheim said the following, regarding constitutive theory: International Law does not say that a State is not in existence as long as it isn't recognised, but it takes no notice of it before its recognition. Through recognition only and exclusively a State becomes an International Person and a subject of International Law.
Montevideo Convention By contrast, the declarative theory of statehood defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria: According to declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states, as long as the sovereignty was not gained by military force.
The declarative model was most famously expressed in the Montevideo Convention. An important part of the convention was Article 11 that prohibits using military force to gain sovereignty. A similar opinion about "the conditions on which an entity constitutes a state" is expressed by the European Economic Community Opinions of the Badinter Arbitration Committeewhich found that a state was defined by having a territory, a population, government, and capacity to enter into relations with other states.
A birth certificate is becoming increasingly important for school places, opening a bank account, marrying, voting, finding a job and welfare and health care.
Federated state - Wikipedia
Officially speaking, the Religious Affairs Office is not allowed to register a second marriage if the divorce was not filed in court. What often happens then is that the civil servant registers the new marriage anyway.
But if other authorities discover that the registration was not according to the rules, for instance the civil registry office that issues birth certificates, you then have a problem. In that case, many women go to court after all.
The court normally grants a retroactive divorce, at least if the official terms have been met.
In practice, many problems are thus solved pragmatically. Some have suggested that retroactive divorce should be banned altogether and that there should be fines for marriages that were not registered according to the rules. The women who call for this are usually middle class and an official divorce is in their interest. Their husbands generally do have an income and a bank account that can be frozen if they fail to pay the maintenance that has been fixed by the court.
They also do not want their husbands to secretly enter into polygamous marriage. However, the greater majority of Indonesian women come from the lower classes.
They do not need to go to court: One of the questions that the government is currently struggling with is whether it should make it more attractive to go to court or whether it should force people to go.
By collaborating with Indonesian researchers, NGOs and the Indonesian government, the researchers ensure that the results of this kind of research are shared and discussed.