33 English words and phrases for talking about your extended family | kultnet.info
And with DNA testing, Facebook, online family trees and message boards that . You might be in-laws, or your relationship might not have a name other than. Ever wondered how you and your distant 'cousins' are actually related? Our handy relationship calculator is exactly what you need!. Study the family tree below that demonstrates the most traditionally used names for relationships between family members. Please pay attention to the gender.
Family trees are often presented with the oldest generations at the top and the newer generations at the bottom. An ancestry chart, which is a tree showing the ancestors of an individual, will more closely resemble a tree in shape, being wider at the top than the bottom.
In some ancestry charts, an individual appears on the left and his or her ancestors appear to the right. A descendancy chart, which depicts all the descendants of an individual will be narrowest at the top.
Family trees can have many themes. One might encompass all direct descendants of a single figure, or all known ancestors of a living person. Another might include all members of a particular surname e. Yet another approach is to construct a tree including all holders of a certain office, such as kings of Germany.
This relies on dynastic marriage to hold together the links between dynasties. The image of the tree probably originated with one in medieval art of the Tree of Jesse used to illustrate the Genealogy of Christ in terms of a prophecy of Isaiah Isaiah Possibly the first non-Biblical use, and the first to show full family relationships rather than a purely patrilineal scheme, was that involving family trees of the classical gods in Boccaccio 's Genealogia deorum gentilium "On the Genealogy of the Gods of the Gentiles"whose first version dates to Fan charts depict paternal and maternal ancestors.
Graph theory[ edit ] While family trees are depicted as trees, family relations do not in general form a tree in the sense of graph theorysince distant relatives can mate, so a person can have a common ancestor on their mother's and father's side. However, because a parent must be born before their child is born, a person cannot be their own ancestor, and thus there are no loops, so ancestry forms a directed acyclic graph.
The graphs of matrilineal descent "mother" relationships between women and patrilineal descent "father" relationships between men are trees however. Assuming no common ancestor, an ancestry chart is a perfect binary treeas each person has exactly one mother and one father, for two parents; these thus have a regular structure. A descendancy chart, on the other hand, does not in general have a regular structure, as a person can have any number of children, or none at all.
Notable examples[ edit ] The longest family tree in the world is that of the Chinese philosopher and educator Confucius — BCand he is the descendant of King Tang — BC. The tree spans more than 80 generations from him, and includes more than 2 million members.
An international effort involving more than branches around the world was started in to retrace and revise this family tree.
Family members - English Vocabulary
Other extended family members include your aunts and uncles. In English we usually call someone "aunt" and "uncle" whether they are related by blood or by marriage: In some families, kids also call their parents' close friends "Aunt" or "Uncle".
Your cousins are other people who you're related to. When people talk about "cousins", they usually mean first cousins. A first cousin is the child of your parents' brothers or sisters. We also count other distant relatives as cousins. A second cousin is one of your parents' cousins' children.
You can even talk about a "second cousin once removed", which is a complicated relationship that many English speakers have heard of, but only a few of us understand. You can read a full explanation on Wikipedia. Your brothers and sisters are also called your siblings.
The son of one of your siblings is your nephew, and the daughter of one of your siblings is your niece.
In-Laws Your husband or wife's family are your in-laws. You call members of your spouse's family "mother-in-law", "brother-in-law", and so on. But that usually stops with immediate family.
For extended family, you need to explain the relationship more clearly: My wife's grandmother passed away last week. You can also call your child's wife or husband your "daughter-in-law" or "son-in-law": My daughter and son-in-law are in town this week.
More Complicated Family Relations Divorces, remarriages, and adoptions create other kinds of relationships. A step-mother or step-father is someone who's married to your father or mother. If your step-mother or step-father has children from a previous relationship, those are your step-brothers or step-sisters. But if your parent and step-parent have a child together, that's your half-brother or half-sister. People who were adopted have a few other kinds of family members.
They usually calls the people who adopted them "mother" and "father". These are their adoptive parents.