May 10, It is not human nature to seek marriage and a specific romantic relationship, but it is our nature to pair bond and it is our culture to seek. Sep 6, Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that men are more likely to have " However that bond can fit into all kinds of marriage patterns – polygyny, "I don't think we are a monogamous animal," said Pepper Schwartz. Human bonding is the process of development of a close, interpersonal relationship between Engagement · Mating · Meet market · Romance · Singles event · Wedding . According to limerence theory, posited in by psychologist Dorothy . The human–animal bond can occur between people and domestic or wild.
Only cats that were confined to the house and not allowed to stray outdoors, except for a balcony or a secluded garden, were included in the study. Queens with a body weight below 4 kg and tom cats below 5 kg were considered to have normal weight unless body condition scoring 6 showed definite overweight.
The overweight condition was checked by the body condition scores of a single individual. The questionnaire contained questions in 6 sections that included the following topics: The questionnaire was similar to one used in a survey of dog owners 8. Where applicable, the questions were scaled from 1 to 7 with 1 indicating not at all true, not at all important, or not at all expected and 7 indicating very true, very important, or very much expected.
Four items on everyday life with the cat showed also significant differences Table 2.
Human bonding - Wikipedia
Both chemicals facilitate pair bonding and maternal behavior in experiments on laboratory animals. In humans, there is evidence that oxytocin and vasopressin are released during labor and breastfeedingand that these events are associated with maternal bonding.
According to one model, social isolation leads to stress, which is associated with activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the release of cortisol. Positive social interaction is associated with increased oxytocin. This leads to bonding, which is also associated with higher levels of oxytocin and vasopressin, and reduced stress and stress-related hormones.
It has been called the "cuddle chemical" for its role in facilitating trust and attachment. One team of researchers has argued that oxytocin only plays a secondary role in affiliation, and that endogenous opiates play the central role.
According to this model, affiliation is a function of the brain systems underlying reward and memory formation.
One of the few studies that looked at the influence of hormones on human bonding compared participants who had recently fallen in love with a control group. Testosterone and FSH were lower in men who had recently fallen in love, and there was also a difference in blood cortisol for both sexes, with higher levels in the group that was in love.
These differences disappeared after 12—28 months and may reflect the temporary stress and arousal of a new relationship. Prolactin Prolactin is a peptide hormone primarily produced in the anterior pituitary gland.
It is also thought to mediate the formation of social bonds between mothers and their infants, much like the hormone oxytocin.Animal Odd Couples: Animals And Their Humans [Full Documentary] - Wild Things
Prolactin may also act to mediate well-being and the positive effects of close relationships on one's health. To do so, it alters an individual's neuroendocrine system to increase the probability of forming a strong social bond without requiring long gestation periods ; this may enable bonding between mother and child in cases of adoption.
The administration of prolactin to female rats initiates maternal behavior, and in bird and fish fathers, it can increase paternal behavior, whereas antagonists to prolactin decrease paternal behavior. In a different study where fathers and infants were observed over a six-months period after the child was born, the researchers found that fathers with higher prolactin levels were more likely to facilitate play with their infant.
Moreover, following the birth of the child, prolactin promotes bonding between the father and the newborn. However, Hergovich et al.
When compared to a control class, the class with the dogs showed higher scores in field independence and empathy toward animals. Clearly, more research with appropriate designs and measures is needed to provide evidence for an effect of animal contact on empathy. Reduction of aggression Only few results point to the potential of the presence of a friendly animal to reduce aggression in humans.
In two studies, effects of the presence of friendly dogs on aggressive behavior in a classroom of first-graders were investigated via behavior observation and reports of the classroom teacher Hergovich et al. In the presence of the dog, in comparison to its absence, aggressive behavior was decreased. Reduction of depression and promotion of a positive mood In their meta-analysis Souter and Miller conclude that animal-assisted interventions have the potential to significantly reduce depressive symptoms and also our present survey of the literature meeting our criteria points in this direction.
Banks and Banksshowed in two controlled studies with patients in long-term care facilities that animal visitation programs reduced feelings of loneliness. The effect was stronger in individual dog visits than in group settings, probably since persons had more intense interactions with the dogs in an individual setting. This indicates also that animal visits reduce feelings of loneliness per se, instead via facilitating social interactions with the other group members. Elderly residents of an institution experienced a reduction in depression and improvement in quality of life when caring for a canary for a period of 3 months Colombo et al.
A companion bird also reduced depression in elderly adults after admission to a skilled rehabilitation unit Jessen et al. Also in children and adults with physical or mental health problems animal contact can improve mood. Children with psychiatric disorders showed better intra-emotional balance after only a single therapy session with a dog Prothmann et al.
In hospitalized children, both, AAT and traditional play therapy improved mood, as reported by the parents and children themselves, but only AAT was associated with display of positive affect Kaminski et al.
Anti-stress effects A large body of studies investigated the effect of interacting with animals on stress, operationalizing stress either via endocrinological or cardiovascular parameters.
Effects of HAI on cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine HAI has been investigated for its effects on hormonal indicators of stress such as cortisol, and on neurotransmitters such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. First, studies not employing a specific stressor, then studies including a stressor are reported. These studies provide direct evidence that interaction with a friendly companion animal, in particular a dog, positively affects endocrine responses as indicated by changes in the levels of cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine, suggesting an attenuation of stress responses via HAI.
Before baselineduring and after the interaction or resting, serum cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine as well as salivary cortisol were collected.
A significant reduction of serum and salivary cortisol, but no effects on the other parameters, were found in the dog conditions. Odendaal and Odendaal and Meintjes assessed changes in plasma cortisol in dog owners when petting their own, or an unfamiliar dog, or quietly reading a book.
The interaction with their own dog, and also with the unfamiliar dog, but not the reading condition led to a significant decrease in the cortisol levels of the humans. A study by Cole et al.
Significantly lower epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were measured during and after the dog visits. The effect of social support by a dog in comparison to support by a friendly human during a social stress test on the cortisol levels of children with insecure attachment representations was investigated by Beetz et al. The support by a friendly dog during the experiment was associated with significantly lower cortisol levels than support by a friendly human. This effect was strongly correlated with the time the children spent in physical contact with the dog during the experiment.
Effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability A substantial number of well-designed studies investigated the effect of HAI on blood pressure and heart rate, some also included skin temperature or skin conductance, either in the absence of a specific stressor or during a stress-inducing task.
Blood pressure was lower when the dog was present during the entire time than when the animal was just introduced during the second half of the observation time. Grossberg and Alf compared the effect of stroking a dog vs.
Blood pressures were significantly lower when stroking a dog than when chatting or reading, however, it was lowest during rest. A positive attitude toward companion animals was associated with lower mean arterial pressure and systolic blood pressure.
Vormbrock and Grossberg assessed heart rate and blood pressure while undergraduates interacted with a dog visually, verbally, or tactually. Blood pressure was highest while talking to the experimenter and lowest during stroking the dog. In adults hospitalized with heart failure, a min visit by a person with a dog led to a greater decrease in systolic pulmonary artery pressure during and after the visit when compared to a visit by a person alone Cole et al.
While walking the dog, heart rate variability was significantly higher than when walking alone. Generally, higher heart rate variability indicates a relaxed state and an increase of parasympathetic activity.
Similarly, Handlin et al. The following studies assessed the effect of interactions with unfamiliar animals on heart rate and blood pressure before, during or after a stressor.
In a similar study, Hansen et al. Behavior observation documented less behavioral distress when the dog was present. However, there were no significant differences in the physiological parameters between the two groups.
The intervention group had a dog beside them during the procedure, while children in the control group had no dog or a supportive person present. Only children who had stated before the procedure that they were stressed by having to come to the dentist showed a significant attenuation of the stress response, measured as less decrease in skin temperature; the presence of the dog was observed for the time while the children waited for the dentist to arrive.
At the group level, the intervention group did not significantly differ from the control group. Demello studied adults while they were recovering from a cognitive stressor under three conditions, with a pet present and only visual contact allowed, or with tactile contact allowed; in the third condition no pet was present. As expected, the cognitive stressor led to an increase in heart rate and blood pressure and these parameters decreased most in the condition where the pet was present but no tactile contact was allowed.
Stroking the animal did not affect blood pressure, but resulted in a significant reduction of heart rate. Studies investigating the effect of an aquarium in the room differ from others due to the species and restricted possibilities for contact. In a sample of elderly adults, DeSchriver and Riddick compared the effects of watching an aquarium, a fish videotape, or a control tape on heart rate, skin temperature, and muscle tension.